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Reproductive system

Male and female reproductive system disorders

Precocious puberty

Delayed puberty

Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

5-alpha-reductase deficiency

Kallmann syndrome

Male reproductive system disorders

Hypospadias and epispadias

Bladder exstrophy


Penile cancer


Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Prostate cancer


Inguinal hernia




Testicular torsion

Testicular cancer

Erectile dysfunction

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Female reproductive system disorders


Ovarian cyst

Premature ovarian failure

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Ovarian torsion

Krukenberg tumor

Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor

Surface epithelial-stromal tumor

Germ cell ovarian tumor

Uterine fibroid



Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial cancer


Cervical cancer

Pelvic inflammatory disease


Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder


Fibrocystic breast changes

Intraductal papilloma

Phyllodes tumor

Paget disease of the breast

Breast cancer

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Gestational hypertension

Preeclampsia & eclampsia

Gestational diabetes

Cervical incompetence

Placenta previa

Placenta accreta

Placental abruption



Potter sequence

Intrauterine growth restriction

Preterm labor

Postpartum hemorrhage


Congenital toxoplasmosis

Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)

Congenital syphilis

Neonatal conjunctivitis

Neonatal herpes simplex

Congenital rubella syndrome

Neonatal sepsis

Neonatal meningitis


Gestational trophoblastic disease

Ectopic pregnancy

Fetal hydantoin syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Reproductive system pathology review

Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review

Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review

Testicular tumors: Pathology review

Uterine disorders: Pathology review

Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review

Cervical cancer: Pathology review

Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review

Benign breast conditions: Pathology review

Breast cancer: Pathology review

Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review

Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review

Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review

Amenorrhea: Pathology Review

Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review

HIV and AIDS: Pathology review

Penile conditions: Pathology review




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USMLE® Step 1 questions

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High Yield Notes

9 pages



of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 25-year-old woman comes to the clinic for evaluation of recurrent miscarriages. Over the past 3 years, the patient has been pregnant 3 times, and each was spontaneously terminated during the first trimester. Medical history is unremarkable, and she does not use tobacco, alcohol, or illicit drugs. Vitals are within normal limits. Laboratory tests are obtained and reveal a PTT of 60 seconds. The patient’s plasma is then mixed with normal plasma. Repeated measurement of the PTT shows no change. Which of the following additional findings is most likely to be seen in this patient?  

External References

First Aid








Spontaneous abortion

antiphospholipid syndrome p. 480

fibroid tumors p. 665

Listeria monocytogenes p. , 137

syphilis p. 181

Vitamin A excess p. 638

warfarin p. 638

External Links


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Charles Davis, MD

Sam Gillespie, BSc

Tanner Marshall, MS

Pauline Rowsome, BSc (Hons)

A miscarriage, or spontaneous abortion, is defined as a pregnancy loss that occurs without outside intervention before the 20th week of pregnancy.

Pregnancy is so complex that there are many different ways for the process to get off course and for a miscarriage to occur.

For example, if there’s a chromosomal abnormality in the sperm or egg then the resulting zygote will have a problem.

One of these problems is called aneuploidy, which is when there are missing chromosomes or additional chromosomes.

For example, if there’s one member of a chromosome pair missing, that results in 45 chromosomes total, instead of the normal 46, it’s called a monosomy.

And if there’s one extra chromosome joining a pair, that results in 47 chromosomes total, and it’s called a trisomy.

Some types of aneuploidy are viable like Turner’s syndrome or Down syndrome, whereas many are not and lead to a miscarriage.

Another abnormality is polyploidy, and that’s when a zygote receives more than one set of 23 chromosomes from either the sperm or egg, resulting in three sets, totaling 69 chromosomes, or even four sets, totaling 92 chromosomes.

Polyploidy is generally not viable and leads to a miscarriage.

One more abnormality is a translocation.

It can either be balanced, where two nonhomologous chromosomes essentially trade equal amounts of DNA, or unbalanced, where the chromosomes exchange unequal amounts of DNA, resulting in either too many or too few copies of certain genes on the involved chromosomes.

Now even if a parent carries a balanced translocation, the sperm or egg may end up with an unbalanced translocation, and the zygote won’t have a normal number of genes.

Some translocations are viable, whereas many are not, and can lead to a miscarriage.

Now, let’s say that there are a normal number of chromosomes present, and that the zygote becomes a blastocyst and tries to implant, there are still many ways in which a miscarriage can occur.

First if the blastocyst fails to implant into the endometrial lining of the uterus, then it won’t find a blood supply and stops growing and get reabsorbed.


  1. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine" McGraw Hill Education/ Medical (2018)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  4. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  5. "Diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and current concepts in the management of pregnancy of unknown location" Human Reproduction Update (2013)
  6. "Ectopic pregnancy" The Lancet (2005)
  7. "Chlamydia trachomatis and ectopic pregnancy: recent epidemiological findings" Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases (2008)

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