Miscellaneous hypoglycemics


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Miscellaneous hypoglycemics

Medicine and surgery

Allergy and immunology

Antihistamines for allergies


Cardiology, cardiac surgery and vascular surgery

Coronary artery disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Heart failure: Clinical (To be retired)

Syncope: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypertension: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypercholesterolemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Leg ulcers: Clinical (To be retired)

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Adrenergic antagonists: Beta blockers

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

Calcium channel blockers

Lipid-lowering medications: Statins

Lipid-lowering medications: Fibrates

Miscellaneous lipid-lowering medications

Antiplatelet medications

Dermatology and plastic surgery

Hypersensitivity skin reactions: Clinical (To be retired)

Eczematous rashes: Clinical (To be retired)

Papulosquamous skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Alopecia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypopigmentation skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Benign hyperpigmented skin lesions: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Endocrinology and ENT (Otolaryngology)

Diabetes mellitus: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypothyroidism and thyroiditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Dizziness and vertigo: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism medications

Hypothyroidism medications


Hypoglycemics: Insulin secretagogues

Miscellaneous hypoglycemics

Gastroenterology and general surgery

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Clinical (To be retired)

Peptic ulcers and stomach cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diarrhea: Clinical (To be retired)

Malabsorption: Clinical (To be retired)

Colorectal cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diverticular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Anal conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Cirrhosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Breast cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Laxatives and cathartics


Acid reducing medications

Hematology and oncology

Anemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Anticoagulants: Warfarin

Anticoagulants: Direct factor inhibitors

Antiplatelet medications

Infectious diseases

Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary tract infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin and soft tissue infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides

Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim

Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins

Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones

Herpesvirus medications



Miscellaneous antifungal medications

Anti-mite and louse medications

Nephrology and urology

Chronic kidney disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Kidney stones: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary incontinence: Pathology review

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

PDE5 inhibitors

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Neurology and neurosurgery

Stroke: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Headaches: Clinical (To be retired)

Migraine medications

Pulmonology and thoracic surgery

Asthma: Clinical (To be retired)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Clinical (To be retired)

Lung cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Antihistamines for allergies

Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists

Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines

Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors

Rheumatology and orthopedic surgery

Joint pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Rheumatoid arthritis: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder

Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand

Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back

Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh

Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle

Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Antigout medications

Osteoporosis medications


Miscellaneous hypoglycemics


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High Yield Notes

7 pages


Miscellaneous hypoglycemics

of complete

External References

First Aid








Acarbose p. 361


Content Reviewers

Yifan Xiao, MD


Ursula Florjanczyk, MScBMC

Alex Aranda

Tanner Marshall, MS

Hypoglycemics are used to treat high blood sugar, a condition commonly known as diabetes mellitus.

As a quick review, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, which most commonly affects children and adolescents, arises when certain cells of the pancreas known as beta cells are unable to produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels.

This is in contrast to Type 2 diabetes mellitus where the body is able to produce insulin, but the tissues don’t respond as well to it, or in other words, these individuals are insulin resistant.

Many hypoglycemics, like sulfonylureas, promote the release of insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas and therefore are known as insulin secretagogues.

In this video, however, we’ll be focusing specifically on the use of non-secretagogues in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.

These medications include multiple classes of medications such as biguanides, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, amylin analogues, and sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitors.

It’s important to note, however, that diet and exercise should always be the first step in managing diabetes before initiating medications, and should generally be continued while on medication as well.

There are two classes of medications that increase insulin sensitivity and decrease the production of new glucose and they include biguanides and thiazolidinediones. Let's start with the biguanides.

Biguanides are the first line of therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. There is one main medication in the biguanide class and that is metFORMIN.


Hypoglycemics are used to treat type II diabetes mellitus. They include drugs like sulfonylureas, biguanides, meglitinides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones. Each type of medication works in a different way to lower blood sugar levels.

For example, sulfonylureas and meglitinides are secretagogues, meaning they stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin. Biguanides inhibit production of new glucose from the liver. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors prevent starch from being broken down into glucose in the gastrointestinal system, whereas thiazolidinediones make tissues more sensitive to insulin.


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  2. "Rang and Dale's Pharmacology" Elsevier (2019)
  3. "Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 13th Edition" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2017)
  4. "SGLT-2 inhibitors in diabetes: a focus on renoprotection" Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (2020)
  5. "Combination therapy with GLP-1 receptor agonist and SGLT2 inhibitor" Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism (2017)
  6. "Thiazolidinediones: the Forgotten Diabetes Medications" Current Diabetes Reports (2019)
  7. "The mechanisms of action of metformin" Diabetologia (2017)

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