Movement disorders: Pathology review


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Movement disorders: Pathology review


Central nervous system disorders

Spina bifida

Chiari malformation

Dandy-Walker malformation


Tethered spinal cord syndrome

Aqueductal stenosis

Septo-optic dysplasia

Cerebral palsy

Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)

Transient ischemic attack

Ischemic stroke

Intracerebral hemorrhage

Epidural hematoma

Subdural hematoma

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Saccular aneurysm

Arteriovenous malformation

Broca aphasia

Wernicke aphasia

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

Kluver-Bucy syndrome

Concussion and traumatic brain injury

Shaken baby syndrome


Febrile seizure

Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)

Tension headache

Cluster headache


Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Trigeminal neuralgia

Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Alzheimer disease

Vascular dementia

Frontotemporal dementia

Lewy body dementia

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Normal pressure hydrocephalus


Essential tremor

Restless legs syndrome

Parkinson disease

Huntington disease

Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)

Multiple sclerosis

Central pontine myelinolysis

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

Transverse myelitis

JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)

Adult brain tumors

Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)

Pituitary adenoma

Pediatric brain tumors

Brain herniation

Brown-Sequard Syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome

Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)

Vitamin B12 deficiency


Friedreich ataxia

Neurogenic bladder


Neonatal meningitis


Brain abscess

Epidural abscess

Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Central and peripheral nervous system disorders

Sturge-Weber syndrome

Tuberous sclerosis


von Hippel-Lindau disease

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Peripheral nervous system disorders

Spinal muscular atrophy


Guillain-Barre syndrome

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Trigeminal neuralgia

Bell palsy

Winged scapula

Thoracic outlet syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Ulnar claw

Erb-Duchenne palsy

Klumpke paralysis


Myasthenia gravis

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

Autonomic nervous system disorders

Orthostatic hypotension

Horner syndrome

Nervous system pathology review

Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review

Headaches: Pathology review

Seizures: Pathology review

Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review

Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review

Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review

Dementia: Pathology review

Central nervous system infections: Pathology review

Movement disorders: Pathology review

Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review

Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review

Adult brain tumors: Pathology review

Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review

Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review


Movement disorders: Pathology review

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 19 complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 12-year-old boy is brought to the pediatrician by his parents due to personality changes, difficulty speaking, and impaired balance over the past year. They describe the patient as a previously bright, cheerful child who enjoyed activities at school and socializing with friends. Over the last several months, he has become very impulsive and irritable and is also having significant trouble completing homework on time. The patient also used to be an avid soccer player but recently dropped out of the team due to poor performance and lack of interest. Vitals are within normal limits. Physical examination of the patient shows significant loss of coordination and dysarthric speech. Slit-lamp examination of the eyes is shown below:  

 Reproduced from: Wikimedia Commons
Which of the following additional findings is most likely to be found in this patient on further testing?   


Content Reviewers

Yifan Xiao, MD


Maria Emfietzoglou, MD

Jerry Ferro

Victoria Cumberbatch

Robyn Hughes, MScBMC

In the neurology ward, there’s a mother with her child, named Justin, who is 2 years old. Justin’s mother is worried because she palpated a mass in his abdomen while bathing him. Justin also has been having episodes of rapid, dancing eye movements as well as shocklike, jerky movements of his extremities. Next, there’s a 42 year old male, named Oliver. For the past few months, Oliver has been acting strangely according to his sister. He forgets important information and is very aggressive with his family. He also has bursts of wild, dance-like movements of his arms. His sister is very anxious because their father died at age 50 after having similar symptoms. Okay, now next to Oliver, there’s a 58 year old male, named Ashton. His wife has noticed that her husband’s face has become inexpressive and he has been having hand tremor at rest for the past few months. Also, his movements have become slower, and he had frequent falls. His medical history is otherwise insignificant.

Okay, so all of them have movement disorders. The cerebrum, cerebellum, and basal ganglia all help coordinate movements, so movement disorders can be traced back to these structures. Movement disorders can be broadly grouped into 2 categories, hypokinetic disorders, which cause slowness of movement, and hyperkinetic disorders, which cause excessive involuntary movement.

Alright, when it comes to hypokinetic disorders, a lot of their symptoms are grouped together under the term “parkinsonism.” This can appear in many conditions including Parkinson’s disease itself, and other syndromes called “parkinson-plus” syndromes. These cause parkinsonism, plus other clinical features. Some Parkinson-plus syndromes include Lewy body dementia, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy.

Okay, the four cardinal symptoms of parkinsonism can be remembered with the mnemonic “TRAP”. “T” for tremor, which is classically described as a resting, pill-rolling tremor, because it looks like someone is rolling a pill between their thumb and index finger. “R” stands for rigidity, which is often described as a cogwheel-like rigidity. This means that when attempting to passively move a limb, there are a series of stops or stalls, kind of like a cog on a wheel. There’s also lead-pipe rigidity, which is when a limb is rigid throughout the entire passive movement, kind of like trying to move a lead-pipe. “A” stands for akinesia, which is the absence of movement, and is a severe form of the more common finding of bradykinesia, which is slowness of movement. This can manifest as a narrow-based shuffling gait or a decreased facial expression, almost to the point where the individual’s face looks like they’re wearing a mask. “P” stands for postural instability, which causes a stooped posture, problems with balance, and an increased frequency of falls. Usually, these symptoms are asymmetric, with the exception of medication-induced parkinsonism, which usually causes symmetric symptoms.


  1. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  3. "Neurology in Clinical Practice: Principles of diagnosis and management" Taylor & Francis (2004)
  4. "Principles and Practice of Movement Disorders E-Book" Elsevier Health Sciences (2011)
  5. "Mayo Clinic Neurology Board Review: Clinical Neurology for Initial Certification and MOC" Oxford University Press (2015)
  6. "Movement Disorders in Neurologic and Systemic Disease" Cambridge University Press (2014)
  7. "Movement Disorders in Childhood" Academic Press (2015)
  8. "Parkinson’s Disease: Basic knowledge" Med Monatsschr Pharm (2016)
  9. "Parkinson's disease" The Lancet (2015)

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