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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Primary adrenal insufficiency
Adrenal cortical carcinoma
Thyroglossal duct cyst
Thyroid eye disease (NORD)
Toxic multinodular goiter
Euthyroid sick syndrome
Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis
Growth hormone deficiency
Constitutional growth delay
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)
Premature ovarian failure
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (NORD)
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Hyperthyroidism: Pathology review
Hypothyroidism: Pathology review
Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review
Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Cushing syndrome and Cushing disease: Pathology review
Pituitary tumors: Pathology review
Hypopituitarism: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Multiple endocrine neoplasia: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
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Harry Delaney, MBChB
Sam Gillespie, BSc
The multiple endocrine neoplasias, or MEN for short, are a group of inherited diseases which cause tumors to grow in the endocrine glands of the body.
The endocrine glands affected in multiple endocrine neoplasia are the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the adrenal glands and the pancreas.
So in multiple endocrine neoplasias there are tumors that form in these glands that lead to overproduction of hormones.
Let’s start by going through the glands that are affected and what they do.
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland found at the base of the brain that makes hormones to control many of the other endocrine glands in the body.
These hormones include thyroid stimulating hormone which acts on the thyroid to make thyroid hormone, adrenal corticotropic hormone that acts on the adrenal glands to make cortisol, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone which acts on the ovaries and testes to make estrogen in women and testosterone in men.
So it’s like the king of the endocrine glands telling them how much hormone to produce.
The pituitary also makes growth hormone which makes you grow, prolactin which stimulates milk production in women, oxytocin which triggers milk release, antidiuretic hormone which help the kidneys reabsorb water, and melanocyte stimulating hormone helps the melanocytes create more melanin or pigment.
Multiple endocrine neoplasias, or MEN for short, are a group of inherited diseases that cause tumors to grow in the endocrine glands of the body. MEN tumors are classified into two broad categories based on their underlying mutations. There is MEN1 caused by a mutation in the MEN1 gene, and MEN2, which is caused by a mutation in the RET gene.
People with MEN1 present with tumors in the pituitary gland or parathyroid glands and pancreatic tumors. MEN2 is further divided into two subtypes: MEN2A and MEN2B. MEN2A is characterized by medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid tumors; whereas MEN2B presents with medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and mucosal neuromas.
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