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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Adult brain tumors
Pediatric brain tumors
Transient ischemic attack
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Central pontine myelinolysis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Restless legs syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Spinal muscular atrophy
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
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Multiple Sclerosis Features and Mechanisms
Multiple Sclerosis Interventions
Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms and Diagnosis
multiple sclerosis p. 539
multiple sclerosis p. 727
Daclizumab p. NaN
heart murmur with p. 296
HLA-DR2 and p. 98
IFN- β for p. 200
internuclear ophthalmoplegia p. 560
natalizumab for p. 120
oligodendroglia in p. 505
presentation p. 727
recombinant cytokines for p. NaN
as type IV hypersensitivity p. 111
multiple sclerosis p. 539, 727
Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and the spinal cord.
Myelin is the protective sheath that surrounds the axons of neurons, allowing them to quickly send electrical impulses.
This myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes, which are a group of cells that support neurons.
In multiple sclerosis, demyelination happens when the immune system inappropriately attacks and destroys the myelin, which makes communication between neurons break down, ultimately leading to all sorts of sensory, motor, and cognitive problems.
Now, the brain, including the neurons in the brain, is protected by things in the blood by the blood brain barrier, which only lets certain molecules and cells through from the blood.
For immune cells like T and B cells that means having the right ligand or surface molecule to get through the blood brain barrier, this is kind of like having the a VIP pass to get into an exclusive club.
Once a T cell makes its way in it can get activated by something it encounters - in the case of multiple sclerosis, it’s activated by myelin.
Once the T-cell gets activated, it changes the blood brain barrier cells to express more receptors, and this allows immune cells to more easily bind and get in, it’s kind of like bribing the bouncer to let in a lot of people.
Now, multiple sclerosis is a type IV hypersensitivity reaction, or cell-mediated hypersensitivity. And this means that those myelin specific T-cells release cytokines like IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and interferon-gamma, and together dilate the blood vessels which allows more immune cells to get in, as well as directly cause damage to the oligodendrocytes.
Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, demyelinating disease on the central nervous system, characterized by the destruction of myelin, the protective sheath surrounding nerve cells, as well as inflammation and scarring of nerve fibers.
Damage to these nerves disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to transmit impulses, resulting in a wide range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems. Symptoms vary widely, but they may include muscle weakness, fatigue, vision problems, balance and coordination problems, and problems with memory and thinking.
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