00:00 / 00:00
Anatomy of the cranial base
Anatomy of the external and middle ear
Anatomy of the eye
Anatomy of the infratemporal fossa
Anatomy of the inner ear
Anatomy of the nose and paranasal sinuses
Anatomy of the oral cavity
Anatomy of the orbit
Anatomy of the pterygopalatine (sphenopalatine) fossa
Anatomy of the salivary glands
Anatomy of the temporomandibular joint and muscles of mastication
Anatomy of the tongue
Bones of the cranium
Muscles of the face and scalp
Nerves and vessels of the face and scalp
Anatomy clinical correlates: Ear
Anatomy clinical correlates: Eye
Anatomy clinical correlates: Skull, face and scalp
Anatomy clinical correlates: Temporal regions, oral cavity and nose
0 / 6 complete
Humans make many different facial expressions and they are an extremely important way that we communicate. They let people know when you are happy, like after getting a good mark on an anatomy test, or curious like when you learn something new about the human body. Let’s learn about the muscles responsible for our facial expressions!
First, let’s start with the scalp which is a layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue that covers the cranium. It extends from the supraorbital margins on the frontal bone to the superior nuchal line on the occipital bone.
Laterally, it covers the temporal fascia and extends to the zygomatic arches on each side. The scalp is made of five layers, which can be remembered easily as the first letter of each spells out the word SCALP.
Going in the order from superficial to deep: S stands for skin, C stands for connective tissue, A stands for aponeurosis or epicranial aponeurosis, L stands for loose connective tissue, and P stands for pericranium, which is the periosteum on the external surface of the cranium.
The first three layers - skin, connective tissue, and the aponeurosis - are connected tightly together, forming a single unit called the scalp proper.
Muscles of facial expression, simply known as the facial muscles are found deep to the skin of the scalp, face, and neck.
Most facial muscles are attached to bones or fascia on one end, and skin on the other, so that when they contract they create facial expressions.
All facial muscles originate from the mesoderm of the second pharyngeal arch, along with the facial nerve. During embryological development, a muscular sheet forms and begins to spread over the scalp, face and neck which later forms the facial muscles.
This spreading carries the branches of the nerve of the second arch with it, which is the facial nerve, or cranial nerve seven.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.