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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Pyruvate kinase deficiency
Sickle cell disease (NORD)
Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Anemia of chronic disease
Iron deficiency anemia
Vitamin K deficiency
Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Essential thrombocythemia (NORD)
Polycythemia vera (NORD)
Acute intermittent porphyria
Porphyria cutanea tarda
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Von Willebrand disease
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Antithrombin III deficiency
Factor V Leiden
Protein C deficiency
Protein S deficiency
Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Heme synthesis disorders: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Myeloproliferative disorders: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Plasma cell disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Thrombosis syndromes (hypercoagulability): Pathology review
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Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) patient discusses her treatment
Myeloproliferative Neoplasms & Myelodysplastic Syndromes
myelodysplastic syndromes p. 436
myelodysplastic syndromes p. 439
sideroblastic anemia p. 425
myelodysplastic syndromes and p. 437
Myelodysplastic syndromes, or MDS, are a group of rare blood disorders associated with faulty development of blood cells in the bone marrow.
MDS can affect individuals of all ages, but it’s more common after the age of 60.
Blood cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells, through a process called hematopoiesis.
This involves a number of divisions, and eventually, results in three types of blood cells: red blood cells, which carry oxygen around our bodies, white blood cells to help fight disease causing pathogens, and platelets that help form clots to stop bleeding.
Once these cells are fully mature, they leave the bone marrow and enter the bloodstream.
In MDS, hematopoietic stem cells are damaged, so they give rise to faulty blood cells, which don’t mature, but instead persist as immature cells, called blasts.
These immature blood cells usually die in the bone marrow or soon after they go into the blood, so you can’t really count on them to do the job of mature blood cells.
As the condition progresses, immature blood cells gradually take over the bone marrow, which displaces and reduces the normal ones.
In most cases, the cause of MDS is not known.
When this happens, it's classified as primary MDS.
In rare cases, they can be caused by chemo or radiation therapy, and this is called secondary MDS.
MDS comprises a spectrum of diseases with differing potential for remaining stable or progressing to acute myeloid leukemia, or AML.
The most common feature of MDS is anemia, caused by low red blood cell levels.
Symptoms of anemia include dizziness, irritability, headaches, and pale skin.
Low white blood cell levels increase the risk of bacterial and fungal infections.
Finally, low levels of platelets cause excessive bruising following minimal injury and easy bleeding.
Now, MDS usually worsens with time, as normal bone marrow function diminishes.
40-50 percent of the time, MDS deteriorates into a form of cancer known as acute myeloid leukemia, or AML.
This happens when there are more than 20% blasts in the bone marrow.
Diagnosis requires a variety of specialized tests including complete blood counts, a peripheral blood smear, as well as bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.
On a complete blood count, there may be low levels of one, two or all of the three blood cell types.
On a peripheral blood smear, there may be big and oval-shaped red blood cells and abnormal white blood cells and platelets.
Myelodysplastic syndromes or just MDS, refer to a group of disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells, usually for unknown causes. Symptoms can include fatigue, shortness of breath, and an increased risk of infection and bleeding. Treatment options for MDS include medications, transfusions, and bone marrow transplantation, depending on the severity of the condition.
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