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Eyes, ears, nose, and throat
Conductive hearing loss
Eustachian tube dysfunction
Tympanic membrane perforation
Age-related macular degeneration
Retinopathy of prematurity
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses
Thyroglossal duct cyst
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Retinal disorders: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review
Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review
Vertigo: Pathology review
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While in the ENT Clinic, two people present with trouble breathing through the nose and have frequent nose bleeds. One of them is a 25 year old individual named Andrew, and the other one is an 18 year old individual named Sarah. Andrew says the problems appeared gradually and feels like something is stuck in the nose. Andrew also has a history of aspirin allergy. On examination, everything seems normal, except for a decrease in the sense of smell. Sarah, on the other hand, has noted these problems ever since childhood. Sarah also mentioned that the symptoms get worse during the spring or proximity to flowers. On examination, presentation is nasal congestion and red, itchy, swollen eyes with frequent bouts of sneezing. Blood tests were normal in both individuals.
Now, from what we can gather, both have some type of nasal, oral, or pharyngeal disease. But first, a bit of anatomy. The nasopharynx is an open chamber located below the base of the skull and behind the nasal cavity. The nasopharynx contains structures like the adenoids, also known as the pharyngeal tonsils; the Waldeyer's tonsillar ring, which is a ring-like arrangement of lymphoid tissue in both the nasopharynx and oropharynx; the Rosenmüller fossa, which is part of the lateral recess of the nasopharynx and a common site of nasopharyngeal cancers; and the eustachian tube orifices. Now, the nasopharynx connects the nasal cavity and oropharynx, which is posterior to the oral cavity that contains structures like the salivary glands, soft and hard palate, tongue, and tonsils.
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