Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review


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Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review

Eyes, ears, nose and throat

Eye disorders

Color blindness

Cortical blindness


Homonymous hemianopsia

Bitemporal hemianopsia



Retinal detachment

Age-related macular degeneration

Diabetic retinopathy

Corneal ulcer


Retinopathy of prematurity

Periorbital cellulitis



Orbital cellulitis

Hordeolum (stye)


Neonatal conjunctivitis

Ear disorders

Conductive hearing loss

Eustachian tube dysfunction

Tympanic membrane perforation

Otitis externa

Otitis media

Vestibular disorders


Meniere disease


Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)

Nasal and nasopharyngeal disorders

Choanal atresia

Allergic rhinitis

Nasal polyps

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Oral cavity and oropharyngeal disorders



Ludwig angina

Aphthous ulcers

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Oral cancer

Warthin tumor

Sleep apnea

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Zenker diverticulum

Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses

Esophageal cancer

Laryngeal disorders



Bacterial epiglottitis

Thyroid and parathyroid gland disorders

Thyroglossal duct cyst

Thyroid cancer



Eyes, ears, nose and throat pathology review

Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review

Eye conditions: Retinal disorders: Pathology review

Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review

Vertigo: Pathology review

Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review

Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review

Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review


Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 13 complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 50-year-old man presents to the office with a two-month history of hoarseness and sore throat. He initially came to the office approximately two months ago with similar symptoms and was treated empirically for an upper respiratory infection. Since then, he has developed night sweats and experienced a 2 kg (4.4 lb) weight loss. He has not experienced heartburn, hearing loss, epistaxis, or nasal congestion. He smokes one pack of cigarettes per day and consumes 3 alcoholic beverages daily. Vital signs are within normal limits. On physical examination, the left tonsil is enlarged, with an area of ulceration present on the mucosa. Overproduction of which of the following proteins is most likely involved in the pathogenesis of this patient’s condition? 


Content Reviewers


Daniel Afloarei, MD

Robyn Hughes, MScBMC

Alaina Mueller

Jung Hee Lee, MScBMC

While in the ENT Clinic, two people present with trouble breathing through the nose and have frequent nose bleeds. One of them is a 25 year old individual named Andrew, and the other one is an 18 year old individual named Sarah. Andrew says the problems appeared gradually and feels like something is stuck in the nose. Andrew also has a history of aspirin allergy. On examination, everything seems normal, except for a decrease in the sense of smell. Sarah, on the other hand, has noted these problems ever since childhood. Sarah also mentioned that the symptoms get worse during the spring or proximity to flowers. On examination, presentation is nasal congestion and red, itchy, swollen eyes with frequent bouts of sneezing. Blood tests were normal in both individuals.

Now, from what we can gather, both have some type of nasal, oral, or pharyngeal disease. But first, a bit of anatomy. The nasopharynx is an open chamber located below the base of the skull and behind the nasal cavity. The nasopharynx contains structures like the adenoids, also known as the pharyngeal tonsils; the Waldeyer's tonsillar ring, which is a ring-like arrangement of lymphoid tissue in both the nasopharynx and oropharynx; the Rosenmüller fossa, which is part of the lateral recess of the nasopharynx and a common site of nasopharyngeal cancers; and the eustachian tube orifices. Now, the nasopharynx connects the nasal cavity and oropharynx, which is posterior to the oral cavity that contains structures like the salivary glands, soft and hard palate, tongue, and tonsils.


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