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Eyes, ears, nose, and throat
Conductive hearing loss
Eustachian tube dysfunction
Tympanic membrane perforation
Age-related macular degeneration
Retinopathy of prematurity
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses
Thyroglossal duct cyst
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Retinal disorders: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review
Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review
Vertigo: Pathology review
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cystic fibrosis p. 58
A nasal polyp is a clump of epithelial cells that forms a small bump or overgrowth of tissue along the lining the nasal cavity, the inside of the nose.
The nasal cavity is made up of three regions.
The first, is the nasal vestibule which is the area just inside the nostrils.
Beyond that, is the respiratory region which delivers air to the sinuses and lungs, and above it is the olfactory region, which is involved in smelling.
Lining the respiratory region are epithelial cells that create mucus to moisten the air and trap pathogens.
There are also air-filled spaces within the skull that are on either side of the the nose called paranasal sinuses which are lined by the same layer of epithelial cells as the respiratory region.
The paranasal sinuses are named for the bones that house the sinus: the sphenoid, located next to the eyes; the ethmoid, between the eyes; the frontal, above the eyes behind the forehead; and the maxillary, behind the cheeks and below the eyes.
Each of the sinuses normally produce mucus, which drain into the respiratory region.
Holes at the back of the respiratory region, called choanae act like funnels to direct the mucus into the throat to be swallowed.
Nasal polyps develop when epithelial cells that line the respiratory region simply overgrow - a process called hyperplasia.
Most of the time, one or more nasal polyps forms in the maxillary or ethmoid sinus.
Nasal polyps can get large - the size of a pea, but they are usually non-cancerous, meaning they don’t break through the basement membrane of the epithelium.
Unfortunately, they often obstruct air flow as well as mucus drainage which allows pathogens to linger in the sinuses and cause infections.
Recurrent infections causes mucosal swelling as immune cells infiltrate the tissue and create an inflammatory response.
Nasal polyps are benign growths that develop in the lining of the nose or sinuses. They result from hyperplasia of the epithelial cells that line the respiratory region - especially in the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses.
Nasal polyps are typically soft, pale, and teardrop-shaped, and can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters. They can obstruct airflow through the nasal cavity and prevent sinus mucus from draining normally. Their treatment involves steroids, or sometimes surgery, but have a high likelihood of returning.
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