Nasal polyps


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Nasal polyps


Upper respiratory tract disorders

Choanal atresia


Allergic rhinitis

Nasal polyps

Upper respiratory tract infection



Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses

Bacterial epiglottitis

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Lower respiratory tract disorders

Tracheoesophageal fistula

Congenital pulmonary airway malformation

Pulmonary hypoplasia

Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

Transient tachypnea of the newborn

Meconium aspiration syndrome

Apnea of prematurity

Sudden infant death syndrome

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Pulmonary changes at high altitude and altitude sickness

Decompression sickness

Cyanide poisoning



Chronic bronchitis


Cystic fibrosis


Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

Restrictive lung diseases


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis



Bacterial tracheitis

Lung cancer

Pancoast tumor

Superior vena cava syndrome

Pleura and pleural space disorders


Pleural effusion


Pulmonary vascular disorders

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary hypertension

Apnea and hypoventilation

Sleep apnea

Apnea of prematurity

Respiratory system pathology review

Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review

Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review

Pneumonia: Pathology review

Tuberculosis: Pathology review

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review

Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review

Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review

Restrictive lung diseases: Pathology review

Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review

Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review


Nasal polyps


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High Yield Notes

10 pages


Nasal polyps

of complete

External References

First Aid






Nasal polyps

cystic fibrosis p. 58


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Tanner Marshall, MS

Vincent Waldman, PhD

A nasal polyp is a clump of epithelial cells that forms a small bump or overgrowth of tissue along the lining the nasal cavity, the inside of the nose.

The nasal cavity is made up of three regions.

The first, is the nasal vestibule which is the area just inside the nostrils.

Beyond that, is the respiratory region which delivers air to the sinuses and lungs, and above it is the olfactory region, which is involved in smelling.

Lining the respiratory region are epithelial cells that create mucus to moisten the air and trap pathogens.

There are also air-filled spaces within the skull that are on either side of the the nose called paranasal sinuses which are lined by the same layer of epithelial cells as the respiratory region.

The paranasal sinuses are named for the bones that house the sinus: the sphenoid, located next to the eyes; the ethmoid, between the eyes; the frontal, above the eyes behind the forehead; and the maxillary, behind the cheeks and below the eyes.

Each of the sinuses normally produce mucus, which drain into the respiratory region.

Holes at the back of the respiratory region, called choanae act like funnels to direct the mucus into the throat to be swallowed.

Nasal polyps develop when epithelial cells that line the respiratory region simply overgrow - a process called hyperplasia.

Most of the time, one or more nasal polyps forms in the maxillary or ethmoid sinus.

Nasal polyps can get large - the size of a pea, but they are usually non-cancerous, meaning they don’t break through the basement membrane of the epithelium.

Unfortunately, they often obstruct air flow as well as mucus drainage which allows pathogens to linger in the sinuses and cause infections.

Recurrent infections causes mucosal swelling as immune cells infiltrate the tissue and create an inflammatory response.

The swelling makes airway obstruction and mucus drainage even worse.


Nasal polyps are benign growths that develop in the lining of the nose or sinuses. They result from hyperplasia of the epithelial cells that line the respiratory region - especially in the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses.

Nasal polyps are typically soft, pale, and teardrop-shaped, and can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters. They can obstruct airflow through the nasal cavity and prevent sinus mucus from draining normally. Their treatment involves steroids, or sometimes surgery, but have a high likelihood of returning.


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  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine" McGraw Hill education/ Medical (2018)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  4. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  5. "A review of nasal polyposis" Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (2008)
  6. "Comparison of short nozzle and long nozzle spray in sinonasal drug delivery: a cadaveric study" Ear, Nose & Throat Journal (2019)

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