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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
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Neonatal hepatitis is this inflammation of the liver tissue in newborns, usually between 1 and 2 months after birth.
A minority of cases, about 20%, are known to be caused by a virus that infected the infant before birth, through the mother, or maybe shortly after birth.
Several viruses that have been known to cause neonatal hepatitis are rubella, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis viruses A, B and C.
The other 80% of cases are said to be idiopathic, meaning we don’t really know what the underlying cause was, a lot of times viruses are suspected, but it could also be due to other genetic disorders, cholestasis where bile flow is impaired, or metabolic liver disorders like alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
This last one’s an inherited disease in which the alpha-1 antitrypsin or AAT protein that’s produced in the liver is not quite produced right, and is essentially the wrong shape.
When this happens, it can’t get out of the liver cells, ultimately building up and causing liver cell death, inflammation of liver tissue, and hepatitis.
A newborn or infant with neonatal hepatitis will often have jaundice, causing yellowed skin and eyes due to the blockage or inflammation of the bile ducts.
When these are blocked, bilirubin, a yellow pigmented component of bile, builds up in the blood and starts to get into tissues, causing yellowed skin and eyes.
Bile’s an essential part of fat digestion and absorption of fat soluble vitamins like vitamin A, D, E, and K, so children with neonatal hepatitis and jaundice may fail to gain weight and grow normally due to lack of adequate nutrition.
Bile also functions in removing toxins from the body, like bilirubin but also things like drug metabolites, so if bile flow is reduced, these might deposit and build up in the skin and lead to itching and rashes.
Bilirubin might also be filtered into the urine through the kidneys, causing darker colored urine.
Neonatal hepatitis is a type of liver inflammation that affects newborn babies. It may be caused by a viral infection, such as rubella, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis viruses A, B, and C. In some cases, the cause may be a problem with the baby's liver (e.g. alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency), or even unknown sometimes (idiopathic).
Symptoms of neonatal hepatitis may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), dark urine, light stools, swelling of the abdomen, and failure to grow and gain weight at the expected rate. The severity of the symptoms can vary depending on the cause and severity of hepatitis.
Treatment for neonatal hepatitis may include medications to control the inflammation and support the functioning of the liver, as well as supportive care, such as fluid and electrolyte management. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
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