Summary of Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), also called neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory distress syndrome of newborn, or increasingly surfactant deficiency disorder (SDD), and previously called hyaline membrane disease (HMD), is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. IRDS affects about 1% of newborn infants and is the leading cause of death in preterm infants. Treatment includes giving maternal sterioids before birth to help the fetal lungs mature. The syndrome is more frequent in infants of diabetic mothers and in the second born of premature twins. Complications include metabolic acidosis, patent ductus arteriosus, and necrotizing enterocolitis.