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PEDS FINAL MATERIAL
Cardiomyopathies: Clinical (To be retired)
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Endocarditis: Pathology review
Infective endocarditis: Clinical (To be retired)
Kawasaki disease: Clinical (To be retired)
Pericarditis and pericardial effusion
Pericardial disease: Clinical (To be retired)
Rheumatic heart disease
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Clinical (To be retired)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Inflammatory bowel disease: Clinical (To be retired)
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Posterior urethral valves
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephritic and nephrotic syndromes: Clinical (To be retired)
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Clinical (To be retired)
Hyperthyroidism: Clinical (To be retired)
Hypothyroidism and thyroiditis: Clinical (To be retired)
Seizures: Clinical (To be retired)
Seizures: Pathology review
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Pediatric orthopedic conditions: Clinical (To be retired)
Necrosis and apoptosis
Pediatric bone and joint infections: Clinical (To be retired)
Pediatric bone tumors: Clinical (To be retired)
Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)
Disruptive, impulse-control and conduct disorders: Clinical (To be retired)
Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders
Autism spectrum disorder
Body dysmorphic disorder
Eating disorders: Clinical (To be retired)
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
0 / 13 complete
nephroblastoma p. 624
Wilms tumor p. 624
dactinomycin for p. 447
neuroblastomas vs p. 357
tumor suppressor genes and p. 222
Tanner Marshall, MS
Wilms’ tumor, or nephroblastoma, is a type of kidney tumor composed of metanephric blastemal cells, cells involved in kidney development, and is the most common malignant kidney tumor in children; only rarely is it seen in adults.
Wilms’ tumor is thought to be caused by mutations in genes responsible for normal genitourinary development, which includes the kidneys as well as the gonads, typically the genes are located around 11p13—which means chromosome 11, the short arm p, region 1, band 3.
One gene critical for normal kidney and gonad development is WT1 (or Wilms’ Tumor 1), which a tumor suppressor gene.
Mutations that result in a “loss of function” of WT1, like deletions, for example, seem to lead to the development of tumor cells seen with Wilms’ tumor.
Wilms’ tumors as a result of WT1 mutations are sometimes part of a developmental syndrome, meaning other abnormalities are present as well, likely because of deletion or mutation of other genes in addition to WT1.
For example, in WAGR syndrome, a mutation in the 11p13 region causes deletion of both WT1 and the PAX6 genes, among others, which leads to Wilms’ tumor and Genitourinary malformations as a result of WT1 deletion, as well as Aniridia (which is absence of iris) and intellectual disability (which is formerly referred to as mental Retardation), as a result of PAX6 deletion.
Another syndrome associated with WT1 mutations is Denys-Drash syndrome, which is characterized by Wilms tumor, early-onset nephrotic syndrome, and male pseudohermaphroditism.
Another gene, WT2, also located on chromosome 11, seems to also be involved with other Wilms’ tumor-containing syndromes, like Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, which includes Wilms’ tumor, macroglossia, organomegaly, and hemihypertrophy.
Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a type of kidney cancer that occurs in children. It is common in children under the age of 5, with the majority of cases occurring in children under the age of 3. Wilms tumors tend to be encapsulated and vascularized, and do not cross the midline of the abdomen.
The common symptom of Wilms' tumor is often a painless abdominal growth. However, it may present with abdominal pain and swelling, hematuria, and can metastasize to other organs such as the lungs, the liver, and bones. Nephroblastoma is usually treated with surgery to remove the tumor and, in some cases, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
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