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Body fluid compartments
Movement of water between body compartments
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Bacterial and viral skin infections: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Viral exanthems of childhood: Pathology review
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Environmental and chemical toxicities: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Medication overdoses and toxicities: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Autosomal trisomies: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Miscellaneous genetic disorders: Pathology review
Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Pharmacodynamics: Agonist, partial agonist and antagonist
Pharmacodynamics: Desensitization and tolerance
Pharmacodynamics: Drug-receptor interactions
Pharmacokinetics: Drug absorption and distribution
Pharmacokinetics: Drug elimination and clearance
Pharmacokinetics: Drug metabolism
Androgens and antiandrogens
Estrogens and antiestrogens
Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins
Antihistamines for allergies
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole
Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides
Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Barbiturates
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines
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Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
Minimal Change Disease
On the Nephrology ward, two people came in with the same symptoms: peripheral and periorbital edema.
One of them is a 10 year old caucasian boy named Brian who had recently been stung by a bee, and the other one is a 55 year old Hispanic individual named Gregory.
Lab tests show that both of them have hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia and urinalysis showed frothy urine with fatty casts.
A 24-hour protein collection was done which showed massive proteinuria with more than 3.5 grams of protein lost through urine per day.
Both Brian and Gregory have nephrotic syndrome, but Brian has minimal change disease, while Gregory has focal segmental glo-merulo-sclerosis.
Nephrotic syndrome happens when the glomeruli are damaged and they become more permeable, so they start letting plasma proteins pass from the blood to the nephron and then into the urine.
This leads to proteinuria, which is when more than 3.5 grams of protein is excreted through the urine per day.
One of the proteins lost through urine is albumin and this leads to hypoalbuminemia.
This causes peripheral and periorbital edema since there’s less oncotic pressure in the blood vessels and the fluid leaks out.
On your tests, a nephrotic patient could also present with a hypercoagulable state and you will need to understand the pathology.
The reason for this is that the person is also losing antithrombin III proteins which is the body’s anticoagulant.
This means that individuals with nephrotic syndrome are prone to thrombotic and thromboembolic complications.
Immunoglobulins are another type of proteins lost through urine, which means that there’s a higher risk for infection.
Now, apart from proteins, lipids are also lost through urine, which gives the urine a frothy or foamy appearance.
Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder characterized by abnormal filtration in the glomeruli, because glomeruli are damaged and are unable to properly retain proteins in the blood. This can lead to protein in the urine, low protein levels in the blood, and swelling.
Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by proteinuria that exceeds 3.5 grams per 24 hours. Loss of such a large amount of proteins leads to swelling (edema) in the legs, ankles, and other parts of the body, as well as an increased risk of infections and blood clots. Nephrotic syndrome can be caused by various conditions, including kidney diseases, diabetes, and lupus. It is usually treated with medications to control the underlying cause.
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