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Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole
Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines
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Now, neuraminidase inhibitors work by preventing the release of new viruses from infected cells, thereby limiting the duration of the illness.
Alright, first let’s focus on influenza A and influenza B.
These viruses have two types of glycoproteins on their protective envelope: H protein, or hemagglutinin; and N protein, or neuraminidase.
Once bound, the cell swallows up the virus in a process called endocytosis.
Next, the virus releases its viral RNA which moves into the cell’s nucleus.
Now, these RNAs are negative-sense, meaning they need to be transcribed by RNA polymerase into positive-sense mRNA strands.
These strands leave the nucleus and are translated into proteins by ribosomes.
These proteins are then assembled into new viruses.
However, the same hemagglutinin that allowed the virus to attach to the sialic acid sugar on the cell surface, can bind to these sugars again and prevent the viruses from leaving the host cell.
So, in order to be released, the virus uses the neuraminidase proteins to cleave the sialic acid and free itself.
So in short, hemagglutinin allows the virus to enter the cell, while neuraminidase lets the virus leave the cell.
Now, neuraminidase inhibitors, as their name implies, bind and inhibit the enzyme neuraminidase, thereby preventing the release of new viruses.
Neuraminidase inhibitors are antiviral medications used for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza A and influenza B, which are known to cause the flu. Neuraminidase inhibitors work by blocking an enzyme called neuraminidase produced by the influenza virus. The function of neuraminidase is to help new viruses to get released from infected cells, and so, its inhibition will disrupt further infection of the host's cells. Examples of neuraminidase inhibitors include oseltamivir, and zanamivir.
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