00:00 / 00:00
Adrenal cortical carcinoma
Primary adrenal insufficiency
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Constitutional growth delay
Growth hormone deficiency
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)
Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (NORD)
Thyroglossal duct cyst
Thyroid eye disease (NORD)
Toxic multinodular goiter
Euthyroid sick syndrome
Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Cushing syndrome and Cushing disease: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Hyperthyroidism: Pathology review
Hypopituitarism: Pathology review
Hypothyroidism: Pathology review
Multiple endocrine neoplasia: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review
Pituitary tumors: Pathology review
Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review
0 / 12 complete
0 / 3 complete
Neuroblastoma Characteristics and Presentation
Neuroblastoma Diagnosis and Management
Pheochromocytoma & Neuroblastoma
Neuroblastoma is a type of tumor composed of “neuroblasts,” specifically neural crest cells, which are cells involved in the development of the sympathetic nervous system.
Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in infants, and it’s only rarely seen in children over five years old.
When a fetus is in its 5th week of development, special cells called neural crest cells start migrating along the spine.
In the thoracic region of the spine, neural crest cells differentiate into the neurons of the sympathetic chain, lying on either side of the entire spinal cord.
In the lumbar region, neural crest cells differentiate into the cells of the adrenal medulla, the inner part of the adrenal gland that sits atop the kidneys.
Together, the sympathetic chain and adrenal medulla form the sympathetic nervous system, connecting the brain and central nervous system to various organs including the heart and blood vessels.
So, when you’re under some sort of stress, like playing a competitive sport like badminton, the sympathetic nervous system kicks into action.
The sympathetic neurons releases norepinephrine, also called noradrenaline, and the cells of the adrenal medulla release norepinephrine and epinephrine, also called adrenaline.
These hormones bind to receptors in various tissues like the blood vessels, the heart, and the lungs, redirecting blood flow to your muscles, make your heart pump faster, and expanding the airways in your lungs, all of which can help you make the winning hit.
After the game is over, and the hormones are no longer needed, epinephrine and norepinephrine break down into metabolites like homovanillic acid or HMA, and vanillylmandelic acid, or VMA.
Neuroblastoma is a type of tumor composed of neural crest cells, which are cells involved in the development of the sympathetic nervous system. It is most commonly found in the adrenal gland, but it can also occur in other parts of the body along the sympathetic chain, such as the neck, chest, or pelvis. Neuroblastoma most often affects children, and it is more common in males than in females.
Symptoms of neuroblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. They may include abdominal pain, a lump in the abdomen, difficulty breathing, bone pain, weight loss, sweating, fatigue, and changes in bowel or bladder function. Treatment for neuroblastoma may include surgery to remove the tumor, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.