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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Adult brain tumors
Pediatric brain tumors
Transient ischemic attack
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Central pontine myelinolysis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Restless legs syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Spinal muscular atrophy
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
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Neurofibromatosis - MBNF - PSA
Neurofibromatosis Type 1
Neurofibromatosis Type 2
neurofibromatosis type 1 as cause p. 71, 495
neurofibromatosis type 1 and p. 71, 495
neurofibromatosis type 1 as cause p. 71, 630
neurofibromatosis type I as cause p. 495
With neurofibromatoses, neuro refers to the nerves, fibro- refers to fibrous tissue, and -oma means growth, or tumor.
So neurofibromatosis refers to fibrous tumors originating from the nervous system.
The body’s central nervous system is made up of the brain and the spinal cord, which are surrounded by three protective layers called the meninges.
Part of the central nervous system are the cranial nerves, which originate in the brainstem and innervate the head and neck, and the spinal nerves, which originate in the spinal cord, and supply the rest of the body.
Each nerve is surrounded by a nerve sheath, which is produced by cells called fibroblasts.
Inside, each nerve there are several fascicles, and each fascicle, in turn, is made up of several axons.
The axons are the long projections of neurons, that carry the information as electrical signals running up and down their length.
Along the axon there are cells called Schwann cells, which produce a myelin cover for the axon.
The myelin helps electrical signals travel along the axon faster.
Now, neurofibromatoses are genetic diseases which cause non-cancerous growths to form in the body’s nerve tissue, and there are two types - type I and type II.
They’re caused by inheriting faulty copies of either the NF1 or NF2 gene, which are found on chromosomes 17 and 22, respectively.
Just remember, NF1 goes with chromosome 17 and NF2 goes with chromosome 22.
Both of these have an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, so a child only needs one faulty copy from either parent to get the disease.
Normally, these are tumor suppressor genes, which means they stop cells from dividing uncontrollably.
Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder characterized by fibrous tumors that affect the development and function of the nervous system. There are three known types of neurofibromatosis: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis.
NF1 is due to a mutation in the NF1 gene on chromosome 17, and generally affects the skin and extremities. NF1 causes cutaneous neurofibromas (benign tumors that grow from the nerve sheath), caf-au-lait spots (flat patches with milky-coffee color), and Lisch nodules (small tan colored bumps).
NF2 is caused by a mutation in the NF2 gene on chromosome 22, and is associated with bilateral acoustic neuromas that can cause tinnitus, and bilateral gradual loss of hearing. NF2 is also associated with multiple meningiomas in the brain and spinal cord.
Schwannomatosis is a rare form of neurofibromatosis, characterized by multiple schwannomas, pain, and numbness in the affected areas. Unlike NF2, schwannomatosis spare the vestibular nerve.
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