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|Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)*||3.6 ng/ml|
With neurogenic bladder, neurogenic means arising from the nervous system, so neurogenic bladder is typically some difficulty emptying the bladder normally, as a result of either damage to the peripheral nerves, brain, or spinal cord.
As urine flows from the kidney, through the ureters and into the bladder, the bladder starts to expand into the abdomen. The bladder is able to expand and contract because it’s wrapped in a muscular layer, called the detrusor muscle, and within that, lining the bladder itself is a layer of transitional epithelium containing “umbrella cells”. These umbrella cells get their name because they physically stretch out as the bladder fills, just like an umbrella opening in slow-motion.
Okay - so when the urine is collecting in the bladder, there are basically two “doors” that are shut, holding that urine in. The first door is the internal sphincter muscle, which is made of smooth muscle and is under involuntary control, meaning that it opens and closes automatically. Typically, the internal sphincter muscle opens up when the bladder is about half full.
Neurogenic bladder is a type of bladder dysfunction that is caused by damage to the nerves related to the bladder control. It is characterized by difficulty emptying the bladder normally, as a result of either damage to the peripheral nerves, brain, or spinal cord.
Neurogenic bladder can occur as a result of various conditions, such as spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, and diabetes. Related bladder dysfunctions could be overflow incontinence, where the bladder fills up to capacity and then dribbles out of the urethra, or urge incontinence, where an individual feels frequent urges to urinate.
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