Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
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Nocturnal enuresis or nighttime urinary incontinence is involuntary urination while asleep, after the age at which bladder control usually occurs, typically above 5 years old. Nocturnal enuresis is considered primary when a child has not yet had a prolonged period of being dry. Secondary nocturnal enuresis is when a child or adult begins wetting again after having stayed dry. The most common cause is a neurological-developmental delay. Other causes include low ADH levels, infections, and psychological issues.
Treatment for nocturnal enuresis may involve a combination of approaches, such as behavior modification techniques, medication, and lifestyle changes. Behavioral interventions may include setting a schedule for using the bathroom before bed, limiting fluid intake in the evening, and using an alarm to wake the child when they start to wet the bed. Medications such as desmopressin and imipramine may be used to help control bedwetting.
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