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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Pyruvate kinase deficiency
Sickle cell disease (NORD)
Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Anemia of chronic disease
Iron deficiency anemia
Vitamin K deficiency
Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Essential thrombocythemia (NORD)
Polycythemia vera (NORD)
Acute intermittent porphyria
Porphyria cutanea tarda
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Von Willebrand disease
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Antithrombin III deficiency
Factor V Leiden
Protein C deficiency
Protein S deficiency
Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Heme synthesis disorders: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Myeloproliferative disorders: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Plasma cell disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Thrombosis syndromes (hypercoagulability): Pathology review
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My story of having non Hodgkin Lymphoma Cancer
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Assessment
non-Hodgkin lymphoma p. 434
non-Hodgkin lymphoma and p. 434
non-Hodgkin vs p. 434
non-Hodgkin lymphoma p. 435
non-Hodgkin p. 434, 435
associations p. 735
corticosteroids p. 118
Hashimoto thyroiditis and p. 345
hepatitis C p. 171
HIV-positive adults p. 174
Hodgkin lymphoma vs p. 434
oncogenes and p. 220
rituximab for p. 120, 446
vinca alkaloids for p. 445
The term non-Hodgkin lymphoma, sometimes called NHL, can be broken down. Lymph- refers to lymphocytes and oma- refers to a tumor.
“Non-Hodgkin” refers to the absence of a key cell that’s seen in Hodgkin lymphoma, the Reed-Sternberg cell.
So, non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a tumor derived from lymphocytes - specifically B-cells and T-cells, which mainly live in the lymph nodes and move through the blood and lymphatic system.
Now, B-cell development begins in the bone marrow, which is a primary lymphoid organ. That’s where young precursor B-cells mature into naive B-cells.
The naive B cells then leave the bone marrow and circulate in the blood and eventually settle down in lymph nodes.
Humans have hundreds of lymph nodes, scattered throughout the body, and they’re considered secondary lymphoid organs.
Each lymph node has B-cells which group together in follicles in the cortex or outer part of the lymph node, along with T-cells in the paracortex just below the cortex.
B-cells differentiate into plasma cells, which are found in the medulla or center of the lymph node.
Plasma cells release antibodies or immunoglobulins.
Antibodies bind to pathogens like viruses and bacteria, to help destroy or remove them.
Various immune cells, including B-cells have surface proteins or markers that are called CD, short for cluster of differentiation, along with a number - like CD19 or CD21.
In fact, the combination of surface proteins that are on an immune cell works a bit like an ID card.
Now, a B cell is activated when it encounters an antigen that binds just perfectly to its surface immunoglobulin.
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a group of blood cancers that include any kind of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas. Hodgkin's lymphoma is characterized by the presence of a specific type of cell called a Reed-Sternberg cell. A lymphoma that lacks this specific cell, is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas can originate from B cells or T cells, though they most commonly arise from B cells.
Symptoms of non-Hodgkin lymphomas include enlarged lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue. Other symptoms may include bone pain, chest pain, or itchiness. Some forms are slow growing while others are fast-growing. Treatment usually involves chemotherapy and radiation therapy, depending on the lymphoma subtype, aggressivity, and how far it has spread.
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