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Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal artery stenosis
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder Clinical Features
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder Diagnosis and Management
Bladder Cancer & Penile Disorders
cisplatin/carboplatin for p. 444
hematuria, with p. 614
hypercalcemia and p. 219
oncogenic microbes and p. 222
Schistosoma haematobium p. , 158, 158
bladder cancer p. 620
bladder cancer p. 222
There are two types of bladder cancers—urothelial and non-urothelial types.
The urothelium is special type of transitional cell epithelium that forms a stretchy, protective barrier in the bladder. The majority of primary bladder tumors are urothelial cell carcinomas also known as transitional cell carcinomas that obviously originate from the urothelium.
Somewhat confusingly, non-urothelial tumors, like squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, also often arise from the urothelium layer but are distinguished by the way that their cells differentiate.
For example, the normal bladder surface is not normally lined with squamous epithelium, yet the cells in the urothelium can change shape and take on a flat, pancake-like appearance of squamous cells. This non-cancerous change is called squamous cell metaplasia.
If these cells begin to grow unchecked they can turn into a squamous cell carcinoma. These tumors typically pop up in multiple locations, and show extensive keratinization, which is where the cytoplasm of the cells is filled with keratin, the same tough material in hair and nails.
Squamous cell carcinomas typically arise in response to chronic irritation like from recurrent urinary tract infections, and long-standing kidney stones.
Another cause, common in some parts of the world, is an infection with Schistosoma haematobium - a type of flatworm. In this infection, the infective larvae linger in the water and then burrow into human skin when given the opportunity, and travel to the liver to mature into adult flukes. From there young flukes migrate to the urinary bladder veins to sexually reproduce and lay eggs in the bladder wall. These eggs can get urinated out, but they also cause chronic inflammation in the bladder wall which is how they lead to squamous cell carcinomas.
Non-urothelial bladder cancers are a small subset of bladder cancers that confusingly, often arise from the urothelium. They include cancers like squamous cell carcinomas completely made of squamous cells, and adenocarcinomas entirely consisting of glandular cells. They are believed to arise from chronic irritation of the bladder, especially from an infection by a flatworm called Schistosoma haematobium. People with non-urothelial bladder cancer may present with hematuria, dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency, and weight loss.
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