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Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis
Osteomalacia and rickets
Paget disease of bone
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Inclusion body myopathy
Degenerative disc disease
Spinal disc herniation
Achilles tendon rupture
Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Iliotibial band syndrome
Patellar tendon rupture
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)
Rotator cuff tear
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome)
Mixed connective tissue disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis)
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Back pain: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Gout and pseudogout: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
Scleroderma: Pathology review
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Sjogren syndrome: Pathology review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Pathology review
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Osgood-Schlatter disease is an inflammation of the patellar ligament, right at the point where it inserts on the tibial tuberosity, resulting in painful swelling just below the knee.
It’s named after two orthopedic surgeons; the American Robert Osgood, and the Swiss Carl Schlatter.
So focusing in on the knee, the proximal epiphysis of the tibia, which is the upper end of the tibia that contributes to the knee joint, has a bony prominence called the tibial tuberosity.
This is considered an apophysis, meaning that it’s a bony prominence that serves as a site for tendon attachment.
The tibial tuberosity specifically serves as the attachment site for the patellar ligament, which is an extension of the quadriceps muscle tendon.
When the patellar ligament contracts, it extends the knee.
At birth, the proximal epiphysis consists of cartilage, but it contains an ossification center inside.
This ossification center begins to ossify or turn to bone between the ages of nine and fifteen, and becomes a bony tuberosity around the age of eighteen.
Osgood-Schlatter disease typically develops between the ages of nine and fifteen years old when the tuberosity hasn’t ossified yet, and therefore isn’t hard enough to resist traction of the patellar ligament.
So, this is why the disease is very common in young adolescents who play sports requiring the quadriceps muscles to contract repetitively, causing the patellar ligament to excessively strain on the not-yet-ossified tibial tuberosity.
This results in inflammation of the ligament at the point it inserts to the tuberosity, what is known as traction apophysitis.
Osgood-Schlatter disease is a common condition that affects the knee in adolescents, typically during the growth spurt that occurs just before puberty. It is caused by repetitive traction of the patella ligament on the tibial tuberosity, causing it to become inflamed, which results in a painful swelling just under the knee.
People with Osgood-Schlatter disease with a palpable lump below the knee, which gets very painful with physical activities like running, jumping, squatting, and especially when going up or down stairs, or when the knee gets hit by something. The treatment consists of reducing physical activity and applying ice to the tuberosity to reduce swelling, as well as pain medication. Rarely, surgery may be necessary, especially if fragmented bones have avulsed off, and get trapped within the patella ligament.
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