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Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis
Osteomalacia and rickets
Paget disease of bone
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Inclusion body myopathy
Degenerative disc disease
Spinal disc herniation
Achilles tendon rupture
Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Iliotibial band syndrome
Patellar tendon rupture
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)
Rotator cuff tear
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome)
Mixed connective tissue disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis)
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Back pain: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Gout and pseudogout: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
Scleroderma: Pathology review
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Sjogren syndrome: Pathology review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Pathology review
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Osteoarthritis: Elaine's story
for osteoarthritis p. 472
osteoarthritis p. 472
osteoarthritis/rheumatoid arthritis p. 472
celecoxib for p. 495
presentation p. 726
Osteo- means “bone”, and -arth- refers to “arthron” which means joint, and -itis means “inflammation”, so osteoarthritis is a disease involving inflammation of the bone and joint cartilage.
It was once thought that the “itis” part of osteoarthritis was a misnomer, and that inflammation didn’t play a role in its development, and that it was mostly a degenerative disease resulting from simple “wear and tear”.
Nowadays, it’s thought that inflammation does indeed play an important role in the development of osteoarthritis.
Alright, so a healthy joint consists of two bones, each with its own layer of articular cartilage, which is a type of connective tissue that allows the two bones to glide against each other essentially without friction.
With Osteoarthritis, we’re really talking about one particular kind of joint which is a synovial joint.
Along with articular cartilage, another important component of synovial joints, and where they get their name from, is the synovium, which along with the surface of the articular cartilage, forms the inner lining of the joint space.
The synovium’s composed of loose connective tissue, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and on the surface—”Type A” cells that clear cellular debris and “Type B” cells that produce components of synovial fluid, which helps lubricate the two articular surfaces.
One of the main issues in osteoarthritis is the progressive loss of this articular cartilage, which means there’s not much separating the two bones anymore, which adds a significant amount of friction between them, which then generates inflammation, and triggers pain through the nerve endings in this joint space.
Maintaining healthy articular cartilage is the chondrocyte’s job, a specialized cell responsible for maintaining everything cartilage-related.
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease usually caused by age-related breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. This leads to stiffness and pain in weight-bearing joints that worsens with activity and improves with rest. Other symptoms of osteoarthritis include a grinding sensation when the joint is moved, and difficulty moving the affected joint. Risk factors for developing osteoarthritis include advancing age, obesity, and joint injury. Treatment involves losing weight, moderate exercise, physical therapy, and drugs to reduce pain and inflammation.
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