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Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis
Osteomalacia and rickets
Paget disease of bone
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Inclusion body myopathy
Degenerative disc disease
Spinal disc herniation
Achilles tendon rupture
Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Iliotibial band syndrome
Patellar tendon rupture
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)
Rotator cuff tear
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome)
Mixed connective tissue disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis)
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Back pain: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Gout and pseudogout: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
Scleroderma: Pathology review
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Sjogren syndrome: Pathology review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Pathology review
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Osteoporosis - A Patient's Perspective
Osteopetrosis (Marble Bone Disease)
Osteoporosis & Paget Disease of Bone
osteoporosis and p. 467
for osteoporosis p. 467
osteoporosis p. 467
osteoporosis with p. 249
osteoporosis p. 249
bisphosphonates p. 495
corticosteroids p. 118
Cushing syndrome p. 352
denosumab p. 120
as drug reaction p. 249
estrogen p. 467
Gaucher disease p. 86
heparin p. 440
homocystinuria p. 83
hormone replacement therapy p. 676
lab values in p. 467
menopause p. 648
pituitary prolactinomas p. 333
raloxifene for p. 447, 676
teriparatide for p. 496
thiazides for p. 629
vertebral compression fractures p. 735
osteoporosis prophylaxis p. 467
Osteo- refers to bones and -porosis means pores.
So, osteoporosis is when there’s a higher breakdown of bone in comparison to the formation of new bone which results in porous bones, meaning a decrease in bone density to the point of potential fracture.
Looking at a cross-section of a bone, there’s a hard-external layer known as the cortical bone and a softer internal layer of spongy bone or trabecular bone that is composed of trabeculae.
The trabeculae are like a framework of beams that give structural support to the spongy bone.
The cortical bone, in turn, is made up of many functional, pipe-like units called osteons, which run through the length of the bone.
In the center of these osteons, there are hollow spaces called Haversian canals, which contain the blood supply and innervation for the bone cells.
Around the Haversian canals, there are concentric lamellae, which look a bit like tree rings.
The lamellae have an organic part, which is mostly collagen, and an inorganic part called hydroxyapatite, which is mostly calcium phosphate.
In between neighboring lamellae, there are spaces called lacunae, which contain bone cells called osteocytes.
At first glance, bone may appear inert and unchanging, but it’s actually a very dynamic tissue.
In fact, spongy bone is replaced every 3 to 4 years and compact bone is replaced every 10 years, in a process called bone remodeling, which has two steps: bone resorption, when specialized cells called osteoclasts break down bone, and bone formation, which is when another type of cells called osteoblasts form new bone.
Bone remodelling as a whole is highly dependent on serum calcium levels, which, in turn, are kept in the normal range by a balance between parathyroid hormone, or PTH, calcitonin and vitamin D.
Parathyroid hormone is produced by the parathyroid glands in response to low serum calcium, and it increases bone resorption to release calcium into the bloodstream.
Osteoporosis refers to decreased bone density due to increased bone resorption compared to bone formation. Commonly affected bones include vertebrae, forearm, and hip. Osteoporosis is typically asymptomatic until a broken bone occurs; such breaks may occur spontaneously or with minor stress because of the disease's unremarkable progression. The treatment involves bisphosphonate drugs like alendronate and risedronate.
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