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Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Premature ovarian failure
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Intrauterine growth restriction
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Neonatal herpes simplex
Congenital rubella syndrome
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
Amenorrhea: Pathology Review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
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endometriomas p. 670
endometriomas p. 670
endometriomas and p. 670
“Cyst” comes from kustis, which means “pouch”, so ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs on or in the ovaries. They are very common in females of reproductive age, but can affect females of any age.
The ovaries are a pair of white-ish organs about the size of walnuts. They’re held in place, slightly above and on either side of the uterus and fallopian tubes by ligaments.
Specifically, there’s the broad ligament, the ovarian ligament, and the suspensory ligament. And the suspensory ligament is particularly important because the ovarian artery, ovarian vein, and ovarian nerve plexus pass through it to reach the ovary.
If you slice the ovary open and look at it (don’t try this at home) there’s an inner layer called the medulla, which contains most of the blood vessels and nerves and an outer layer called the cortex, which has ovarian follicles scattered throughout it.
Each follicle is initially made up of an immature sex cell, or primary oocyte, which is the female sex cell, and layers of theca and granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte.
Now, there’s actually loads going on with the ovaries throughout the menstrual cycle, which is controlled by the hypothalamus and the pituitary up in the brain.
The hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone, or GnRH, which makes the nearby anterior pituitary gland release follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH, and luteinizing hormone, or LH.
In the first two weeks of an average 28-day cycle, the ovaries go through the follicular phase, meaning that out of the many follicles scattered throughout the ovaries, a couple of them enter a race to become the dominant follicle, that will be released at ovulation, while the rest regress and die off.
An ovarian cyst is any fluid-filled sac that develops in the ovary. Common ovarian cyst types are corpus luteum cysts, theca-lutein cysts, dermoid cysts, endometrioid cysts, etc. Most ovarian cysts do not cause any symptoms unless they either break open or cause the ovary to twist and become ischemic (ovarian torsion). This can result in lower abdominal and back pain, vomiting and feeling faint, bloating, and loss of the affected ovary.
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