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Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis
Osteomalacia and rickets
Paget disease of bone
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Inclusion body myopathy
Degenerative disc disease
Spinal disc herniation
Achilles tendon rupture
Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Iliotibial band syndrome
Patellar tendon rupture
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)
Rotator cuff tear
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome)
Mixed connective tissue disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis)
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Back pain: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Gout and pseudogout: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
Scleroderma: Pathology review
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Sjogren syndrome: Pathology review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Pathology review
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Paget's Disease of Bone
Malignant Bone Tumors
Osteoporosis & Paget Disease of Bone
Paget disease of bone p. 468
Paget disease of bone p. 726
in Paget disease of bone p. 468
bisphosphonates p. 495
lab values in p. 469
osteosarcomas and p. 469
presentation p. 726
woven bone in p. 452
Paget disease of bone is a disorder in which there’s a lot of bone remodeling that happens in some regions of the bone.
Typically there’s excessive bone resorption followed by excessive bone growth, and it leads to skeletal deformities and potential fractures.
Normally, bones undergo a continuous process of bone remodeling.
Old brittle bone tissue gets reabsorbed by multinucleated bone cells called osteoclasts, which have 5 to 20 nuclei per cell.
The resorbed bone tissue gets replaced by a new one made by another type of bone cell called an osteoblast.
At the cellular level, the process begins when osteoblasts release receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand, or RANKL for short, which is a substance that binds to RANK receptors on the surface of osteoclast.
When RANKL binds to the RANK receptor, it activates the osteoclasts, and they start secreting lysosomal enzymes like collagenase as well as hydrochloric acid.
Together they digest the collagen protein and dissolve the minerals that make up the bone matrix.
Once there’s been sufficient bone demineralization, the osteoblasts secrete another substance called Osteoprotegerin, or OPG for short, which binds RANKL and prevents it from activating the RANK receptors. This causes the osteoclasts to stop demineralizing the bones.
Once that happens, the osteoblasts start secreting a substance called osteoid seam, which is mainly made up of collagen and acts like a scaffold upon which calcium and phosphate can get deposited. And that’s how new bone begins to get formed again.
The exact cause of Paget disease of bone is unclear, but it can get triggered by infections like the measles virus, and is linked to genetic mutations like the SQSTM1 mutation, which encodes a protein involved in regulating osteoclasts.
Paget's disease of bone, also known as osteitis deformans, is a chronic bone disorder that causes the bone to become thick, weak, and deformed. It commonly affects the pelvis, femur, and lower lumbar spine though it can affect any bone in the body.
Paget disease is associated with an increased risk of fractures, arthritis, and bone tumors. Symptoms may include pain in the affected bone or due to arthritis or nerve impingement. Treatment involves medications to slow the progression of the disease, such as bisphosphonates, pain relievers, and surgery to correct deformities or stabilize fractures.
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