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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
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Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis and Treatment
Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Symptoms and Risk Factors
Pancreatic Cancer & Islet Cell Tumors
pancreatic cancer p. 404
pancreatic adenocarcinoma p. 405
pancreatic cancer p. 402
5-fluorouracil for p. 444
adenocarcinomas p. 404
biliary cirrhosis and p. 402
carcinogens causing p. 221
hyperbilirubinemia with p. 400
metastases of p. 222
oncogenes and p. 220
paraneoplastic syndromes with p. 219
presentation p. 725
tumor suppressor genes and p. 220
pancreatic cancer and p. 404
for pancreatic cancer p. 404
Pancreatic carcinoma describes the pancreas having cancerous cells arise.
Now a healthy pancreas has two types of glands, exocrine glands which sends digestive enzymes off to the small intestine, and endocrine glands which help regulate metabolism in the body, for example, maintaining normal blood sugar.
Over 95% of pancreatic tumors develop in the pancreas’s exocrine tissues, and of these, tumors arising in the epithelial cells lining the pancreatic ducts account for the vast majority of cases.
This type of pancreatic cancer is known as pancreatic adenocarcinoma due to the cells glandular-like (“adeno”) appearance under the microscope, often pancreatic adenocarcinoma is used interchangeably with pancreatic carcinoma.
These tumors typically form in the head or neck of the pancreas, but in some cases tumors form in the tail.
Around 5% of exocrine pancreatic carcinomas are caused by malignancies in the acinar cells, which are the cells that produce the digestive enzymes like trypsinogen, and around 1% are cystadenocarcinomas, or malignant cysts.
There are also other types of pancreatic cancer, but those are even more rare.
Generally, pancreatic carcinoma is caused by genetic mutations in the ductal epithelial cells, and these mutations might activate oncogenes which promote cancer or inactivate tumor suppressor genes.
Either way, this can lead to uncontrolled cell growth caused by the disruptions of the cell signalling pathways that regulate cell survival and growth, as well as multiple immune system responses like inflammation and stress responses.
Although it’s not exactly clear how the genetic mutations that trigger pancreatic carcinoma develop, there are some well known modifiable risk factors like smoking which increases the risk by two to five-fold, obesity, as well as eating a diet high in red meat.
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive tumor arising from the pancreatic duct mostly of the head or neck. The most common type of pancreatic cancer is pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Symptoms of pancreatic cancer can include abdominal pain radiating to the back, weight loss, jaundice, loss of appetite, nausea, and fatigue.
Pancreatic cancer is caused by genetic mutations in the ductal epithelial cells, which activate oncogenes that promote cancer or inactivate tumor suppressor genes. The risk factors include smoking, a family history of pancreatic cancer, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and pancreatitis. Treatment for pancreatic cancer may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy, depending on the stage of cancer and the patient's overall health.
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