Pelvic inflammatory disease


00:00 / 00:00



Pelvic inflammatory disease

Reproductive system

Male and female reproductive system disorders

Precocious puberty

Delayed puberty

Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

5-alpha-reductase deficiency

Kallmann syndrome

Male reproductive system disorders

Hypospadias and epispadias

Bladder exstrophy


Penile cancer


Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Prostate cancer


Inguinal hernia




Testicular torsion

Testicular cancer

Erectile dysfunction

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Female reproductive system disorders


Ovarian cyst

Premature ovarian failure

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Ovarian torsion

Krukenberg tumor

Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor

Surface epithelial-stromal tumor

Germ cell ovarian tumor

Uterine fibroid



Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial cancer


Cervical cancer

Pelvic inflammatory disease


Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder


Fibrocystic breast changes

Intraductal papilloma

Phyllodes tumor

Paget disease of the breast

Breast cancer

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Gestational hypertension

Preeclampsia & eclampsia

Gestational diabetes

Cervical incompetence

Placenta previa

Placenta accreta

Placental abruption



Potter sequence

Intrauterine growth restriction

Preterm labor

Postpartum hemorrhage


Congenital toxoplasmosis

Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)

Congenital syphilis

Neonatal conjunctivitis

Neonatal herpes simplex

Congenital rubella syndrome

Neonatal sepsis

Neonatal meningitis


Gestational trophoblastic disease

Ectopic pregnancy

Fetal hydantoin syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Reproductive system pathology review

Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review

Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review

Testicular tumors: Pathology review

Uterine disorders: Pathology review

Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review

Cervical cancer: Pathology review

Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review

Benign breast conditions: Pathology review

Breast cancer: Pathology review

Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review

Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review

Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review

Amenorrhea: Pathology Review

Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review

HIV and AIDS: Pathology review

Penile conditions: Pathology review


Pelvic inflammatory disease


0 / 13 complete

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 5 complete

High Yield Notes

4 pages


Pelvic inflammatory disease

of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 22-year-old woman comes to the emergency room with a fever, chills, and abdominal pain that began this morning. Two months ago, she was diagnosed with a herpes simplex genital infection and treated with valacyclovir. She is sexually active and has multiple sexual partners. She uses condoms inconsistently. Her last menstrual period was four weeks ago. She has not received the human papillomavirus vaccination series. Family history is noncontributory. Temperature is 38.3°C (100.9°F), pulse is 100/min, respirations are 20/min, and blood pressure is 120/75 mmHg. BMI is 32 kg/m2. Speculum examination reveals mucopurulent discharge with a friable, erythematous cervix. Cervical motion tenderness and right adnexal tenderness are present on bimanual examination. An external genital examination is non-contributory. Which of the following clinical sequelae is likely if this patient does not receive appropriate treatment?  

External References

First Aid








Chlamydia trachomatis p. , 146

pelvic inflammatory disease p. 147

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) p. 182

Actinomyces p. , 137

chlamydia p. 146, 180

Chlamydia trachomatis p. , 147

copper IUD p. 681

ectopic pregnancy p. 666

gonococci p. 140

gonorrhea p. 180


Content Reviewers


Evan Debevec-McKenney

Pelvic inflammatory disease, or PID, is an infection of the upper female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.

It can cause a number of serious complications, including infertility.

The female reproductive system includes all of internal and external organs that help with reproduction.

The internal sex organs are the ovaries, which are the female gonads, the fallopian tubes, two muscular tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus, and the uterus, which is the strong muscular sack that a fetus can develop in.

The neck of the uterus is called the cervix, and it protrudes into the vagina.

At the opening of the vagina are the external sex organs, and these are usually just called the genitals and they’re in the vulva region.

They include the labia, the clitoris, and the mons pubis.

The vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes all have a mucosa, which is a layer of epithelial cells that lines the inside of these organs.

PID usually develops from a bacterial infection in the vagina or cervix which causes inflammation of this mucosal layer.


Pelvic inflammatory disease or PID is an infection of the upper female reproductive system that can affect the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. It is commonly caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, but can also be caused by other types of bacteria.

Symptoms of PID include lower abdominal pain, pelvic pain, fever, abnormal vaginal discharge, and dyspareunia (pain during intercourse). However, some women may have no symptoms at all. If left untreated, PID can cause serious complications such as infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy. Treatment involves a combination of antibiotics to clear the infection and anti-inflammatory medication to reduce pain and inflammation.


  1. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  2. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  4. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  5. "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease" Infectious Disease Clinics of North America (2013)
  6. "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease" New England Journal of Medicine (2015)
  7. "Microbiota and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease" Seminars in Reproductive Medicine (2014)

Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties

Cookies are used by this site.

USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.