Penile conditions: Pathology review

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Penile conditions: Pathology review

Reproductive system

Male and female reproductive system disorders

Precocious puberty

Delayed puberty

Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

5-alpha-reductase deficiency

Kallmann syndrome

Male reproductive system disorders

Hypospadias and epispadias

Bladder exstrophy


Penile cancer


Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Prostate cancer


Inguinal hernia




Testicular torsion

Testicular cancer

Erectile dysfunction

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Female reproductive system disorders


Ovarian cyst

Premature ovarian failure

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Ovarian torsion

Krukenberg tumor

Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor

Surface epithelial-stromal tumor

Germ cell ovarian tumor

Uterine fibroid



Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial cancer


Cervical cancer

Pelvic inflammatory disease


Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder


Fibrocystic breast changes

Intraductal papilloma

Phyllodes tumor

Paget disease of the breast

Breast cancer

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Gestational hypertension

Preeclampsia & eclampsia

Gestational diabetes

Cervical incompetence

Placenta previa

Placenta accreta

Placental abruption



Potter sequence

Intrauterine growth restriction

Preterm labor

Postpartum hemorrhage


Congenital toxoplasmosis

Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)

Congenital syphilis

Neonatal conjunctivitis

Neonatal herpes simplex

Congenital rubella syndrome

Neonatal sepsis

Neonatal meningitis


Gestational trophoblastic disease

Ectopic pregnancy

Fetal hydantoin syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Reproductive system pathology review

Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review

Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review

Testicular tumors: Pathology review

Uterine disorders: Pathology review

Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review

Cervical cancer: Pathology review

Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review

Benign breast conditions: Pathology review

Breast cancer: Pathology review

Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review

Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review

Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review

Amenorrhea: Pathology Review

Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review

HIV and AIDS: Pathology review

Penile conditions: Pathology review


Penile conditions: Pathology review

USMLE® Step 1 questions

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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 52-year-old man presents to an outpatient clinic for evaluation of an itchy rash on his penis. The rash has been present on the glans of the penis for seven weeks. The patient immigrated from Argentina in his twenties and is unsure of his vaccination status. He has had multiple sexual partners and occasionally uses condoms for protection. Physical examination reveals an uncircumcised penis. A 2-cm velvety, red, well-marginated, painless ulcer is noted on the glans penis. No other penile deformities are observed. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

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Content Reviewers

Antonella Melani, MD


Antonia Syrnioti, MD

Jerry Ferro

Mathew Pietri

Aileen Lin, MScBMC

Jacob is a 32 year old male who comes to the emergency department because of a painful, sustained erection, which has lasted five hours now. Upon further questioning, Jacob tells you that he takes antidepressant medications. You immediately order a penile arterial blood gas analysis, which reveals decreased concentration of oxygen, increased concentration of carbon dioxide, and decreased arterial pH.

Next you see Tafari, a 55 year old male of African descent. Tafari is worried because he developed a lesion on the glans penis about six months ago, and it won’t go away. Upon physical examination, you notice that the lesion looks bright red and has well-defined borders. Finally, you decide to perform an excisional biopsy to remove and analyze the lesion.

Okay, based on the initial presentation, both Jacob and Tafari seem to have some form of penile condition.

Now, the penis is made of three long cylindrical bodies: the corpus spongiosum that surrounds the penile urethra, and the two corpora cavernosa that are made of erectile tissue. The corpora cavernosa are wrapped in a fibrous coat called the tunica albuginea, and each corpus cavernosum is made up of blood-filled spaces called the cavernosal spaces. These spaces are lined with endothelial cells surrounded by smooth muscle. Running down the center of each corpus cavernosum is a large artery called the deep artery, which gives off smaller arteries that supply the cavernosal spaces. Next, blood gets drained from these spaces by small emissary veins, which drain into the deep dorsal vein. This vein then carries the blood back into the systemic circulation.

Now, for your exams, some high yield penile conditions you must absolutely remember include Peyronie disease, priapism, and squamous cell carcinoma of the penis.

Let’s start with Peyronie disease, which refers to an abnormal curvature of the penis. For your exams, make sure you don’t confuse this disease with a penile fracture, where penile injury may result in rupture of the corpora cavernosa, leading to an abnormal penile curvature. In contrast, the cause of Peyronie disease is not fully understood, however, it’s thought to be associated with repeated microtrauma during sexual intercourse. This is followed by local inflammation and collagen deposition creating a fibrous plaque in the tunica albuginea.


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