00:00 / 00:00
Bundle branch block
Pulseless electrical activity
Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)
Premature atrial contraction
Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes
Premature ventricular contraction
Rheumatic heart disease
Atrial septal defect
Coarctation of the aorta
Patent ductus arteriosus
Ventricular septal defect
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Tetralogy of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
Transposition of the great vessels
Pericarditis and pericardial effusion
Aortic valve disease
Mitral valve disease
Pulmonary valve disease
Tricuspid valve disease
Coronary steal syndrome
Polycystic kidney disease
Renal artery stenosis
Peripheral artery disease
Subclavian steal syndrome
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome
Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)
Chronic venous insufficiency
Deep vein thrombosis
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review
Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review
Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Coronary artery disease: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Dyslipidemias: Pathology review
Endocarditis: Pathology review
Heart blocks: Pathology review
Heart failure: Pathology review
Hypertension: Pathology review
Pericardial disease: Pathology review
Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Valvular heart disease: Pathology review
Vasculitis: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
A Patient with Peripheral Vascular Disease: Irene's Story
Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
Peripheral Artery Disease
Vascular refers to the blood vessels, and peripheral means the outer limits or edge of something, which in peripheral vascular disease refers to any vessels that aren’t supplying the heart or the brain, like ones in the legs, arms, or other organs. Peripheral vascular disease happens when one of these arteries becomes narrowed, which reduces blood flow; this often affects the limbs.
Peripheral vascular disease, or PVD, usually involves the arteries, so sometimes it’s also referred to as peripheral artery disease or PAD. PVD is usually caused by a blockage, called organic PVD, that is most commonly created by atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a buildup of lipids and fibrous material just under the inner lining of the blood vessel, called the tunica intima. When plaque builds up, it narrows the artery, which reduces perfusion to whatever tissue it tends to supply; this buildup usually happens over the course of many years. However, the vessel could be blocked by an embolus, which can happen suddenly if a blood clot from some upstream artery lodges in a peripheral artery; this clot would obviously stop blood flow from getting to the tissue the vessel supplies.
Besides organic PVDs, there are also functional PVDs. With functional PVDs, blood vessels stop blood flow by changing diameter, such as with vasospasms, where the vessel constricts and blood flow is reduced. This type of PVD is usually short term, and can come and go.
The arteries supplying the legs are the most commonly affected vessels in peripheral vascular disease. When less blood gets to the muscle tissue in the legs, the tissue receives less oxygen and becomes ischemic. Ischemic cells release adenosine, a type of signaling molecule, which is thought to affect nerves in these areas; this is felt as pain. This pain in the legs is often referred to as claudication. Sometimes, even though blood flow is narrowed with PVD, when a person is at rest, there’s enough of blood to meet the tissue’s demands; thus, people are often asymptomatic during rest.
Peripheral vascular disease or PVD refers to the narrowing of the arteries other than those which supply the heart and the brain. It most commonly affects the legs, but other arteries may also be involved. PVD can be organic, where the narrowing is caused by a blockage, or functional, where the blood vessel is constricted.
PVD causes a reduction in blood flow to the tissue supplied by the artery, resulting in tissue ischemia, gangrene, and necrosis. The classic symptom is leg pain when walking which resolves with rest, known as intermittent claudication. Other symptoms including skin ulcers, bluish skin, cold skin, or poor nail and hair growth may occur in the affected leg. Treatment involves lifestyle changes, medication to reduce clotting, or rarely surgery.
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