Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)


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Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Medicine and surgery

Allergy and immunology

Antihistamines for allergies


Cardiology, cardiac surgery and vascular surgery

Coronary artery disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Heart failure: Clinical (To be retired)

Syncope: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypertension: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypercholesterolemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Leg ulcers: Clinical (To be retired)

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Adrenergic antagonists: Beta blockers

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

Calcium channel blockers

Lipid-lowering medications: Statins

Lipid-lowering medications: Fibrates

Miscellaneous lipid-lowering medications

Antiplatelet medications

Dermatology and plastic surgery

Hypersensitivity skin reactions: Clinical (To be retired)

Eczematous rashes: Clinical (To be retired)

Papulosquamous skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Alopecia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypopigmentation skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Benign hyperpigmented skin lesions: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Endocrinology and ENT (Otolaryngology)

Diabetes mellitus: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypothyroidism and thyroiditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Dizziness and vertigo: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism medications

Hypothyroidism medications


Hypoglycemics: Insulin secretagogues

Miscellaneous hypoglycemics

Gastroenterology and general surgery

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Clinical (To be retired)

Peptic ulcers and stomach cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diarrhea: Clinical (To be retired)

Malabsorption: Clinical (To be retired)

Colorectal cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diverticular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Anal conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Cirrhosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Breast cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Laxatives and cathartics


Acid reducing medications

Hematology and oncology

Anemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Anticoagulants: Warfarin

Anticoagulants: Direct factor inhibitors

Antiplatelet medications

Infectious diseases

Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary tract infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin and soft tissue infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides

Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim

Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins

Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones

Herpesvirus medications



Miscellaneous antifungal medications

Anti-mite and louse medications

Nephrology and urology

Chronic kidney disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Kidney stones: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary incontinence: Pathology review

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

PDE5 inhibitors

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Neurology and neurosurgery

Stroke: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Headaches: Clinical (To be retired)

Migraine medications

Pulmonology and thoracic surgery

Asthma: Clinical (To be retired)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Clinical (To be retired)

Lung cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Antihistamines for allergies

Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists

Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines

Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors

Rheumatology and orthopedic surgery

Joint pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Rheumatoid arthritis: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder

Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand

Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back

Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh

Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle

Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Antigout medications

Non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

Osteoporosis medications


Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

USMLE® Step 2 questions

0 / 7 complete


USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 75-year-old man comes to the clinic with persistent leg pain with exertion. Three months ago, the patient was found to have an ankle-brachial index of 0.6, and he was started on atorvastatin, chlorthalidone, and aspirin. Since then, the patient has successfully quit smoking and has participated in a supervised exercise therapy program where he has achieved a 10 lb (4.5 kg) weight loss. The pain, characterized by aching in the right thigh and buttock after walking more than 3 blocks, has not improved. The patient’s temperature is 37.0°C (98.6°F), pulse is 80/min and regular, respirations are 20/min, blood pressure is 130/75 mmHg, and BMI is 32 kg/m2. Pulses in the right femoral artery are diminished compared to the left. Which of the following therapies is most appropriate for this patient?  


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Antonella Melani, MD

Evan Debevec-McKenney

Peripheral vascular disease is an abnormal narrowing of arteries other than the ones that supply the heart or brain, and it most often affects the ones in the legs.

Risk factors include being older than 60 years, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

The most common underlying mechanism of peripheral artery disease is atherosclerosis, which results in the accumulation of lipid and fibrous material between the layers of the arterial wall.

Eventually, the affected artery becomes progressively narrower, and this may lead to pain, ulceration, and even gangrene.

Now, most people with peripheral vascular disease actually don’t have symptoms until occlusion becomes significant, which is when 70% of the vessel lumen is obstructed.

Symptoms include intermittent claudication, which includes pain, numbness, or tiredness in the legs during walking or standing, and is relieved by rest.

This is because the blood supply may be enough to meet the muscle needs at rest, but not the increased needs during activity, leading to ischemia – so basically, occurs when oxygen demand is greater than oxygen supply.

The perceived level of symptoms from intermittent claudication can be mild to extremely severe depending on the degree of blood supply.

Intermittent claudication can present unilaterally or bilaterally, as buttock and hip, thigh, calf, or foot pain, singly or in combination.

In addition, pulses in one or both groins are diminished, and bilateral aortoiliac disease that is severe enough almost always causes erectile dysfunction.

The triad of intermittent claudication, absent or diminished femoral pulses, and erectile dysfunction is known as Leriche syndrome.

Location of pain depends upon the artery involved. Lower aorta or iliac artery involvement causes pain in the hips and buttocks.

Iliac or common femoral artery involvement causes pain in the thigh.


Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a group of diseases that affect the circulation in the blood vessels outside of the heart and brain. PVD can cause the blood vessels to get narrowed or blocked, leading to poor circulation and possible ischemia of the affected body parts. Symptoms depend on the affected organ and may include leg pain, cramping, and fatigue. It is commonly associated with smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Treatment options for PVD include lifestyle changes, medications, and surgery.


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