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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
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PJs for PJS Day
Carcinoid Tumor & Small Bowel Neoplasms
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome as cause p. 394
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, named after Dr. Jan Peutz, who first described it, and Dr. Harold Joseph Jeghers, who later reported on it, is a rare autosomal dominant condition in which individuals develop polyps throughout their gastrointestinal tract, as well as dark spots called melanotic macules in their mouth, lips, genitalia, palms, and soles.
The large intestine is found in the abdominal cavity, which can be thought of as having two spaces - the intraperitoneal space and the retroperitoneal space.
The intraperitoneal space contains the first part of the duodenum, all of the small intestines, the transverse colon, sigmoid colon, and the rectum; the retroperitoneal space contains the distal duodenum, ascending colon, descending colon, and anal canal.
So the large intestines essentially weave back and forth between the intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal spaces.
Now, the walls of the gastrointestinal tract are composed of four layers.
The outermost layer is the called serosa for the intraperitoneal parts, and the adventitia for the retroperitoneal parts.
Next is the muscular layer, which contracts to move food through the bowel.
After that is the submucosa, which consists of a dense layer of tissue that contains blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves.
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), also known as hereditary intestinal polyposis syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract, along with melanotic macules in the skin and mucosa, and a high risk of developing malignancy in various organs, including cancers of the GI tract, pancreas, breasts, lungs, ovaries, uterus, and testicles.
People with PJS have a higher risk of developing certain types of cancer, particularly in the colon, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, and breast. Regular surveillance and screening for these cancers are recommended for people with PJS. Treatment of PJS usually involves surgically removing the polyps, and regular surveillance with colonoscopies, upper endoscopies, and other imaging studies.
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