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Body fluid compartments
Movement of water between body compartments
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Bacterial and viral skin infections: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Viral exanthems of childhood: Pathology review
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Environmental and chemical toxicities: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Medication overdoses and toxicities: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Autosomal trisomies: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Miscellaneous genetic disorders: Pathology review
Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Pharmacodynamics: Agonist, partial agonist and antagonist
Pharmacodynamics: Desensitization and tolerance
Pharmacodynamics: Drug-receptor interactions
Pharmacokinetics: Drug absorption and distribution
Pharmacokinetics: Drug elimination and clearance
Pharmacokinetics: Drug metabolism
Androgens and antiandrogens
Estrogens and antiestrogens
Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins
Antihistamines for allergies
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole
Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides
Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Barbiturates
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines
Pharmacokinetics refers to the movement and modification of medication inside the body.
Or more simply, it’s what the body does to this medication and how it does it.
Alright, so once the medication is administered, it first has to be absorbed into the circulation, then distributed to various tissues throughout the body, metabolized or broken down, and finally, eliminated or excreted in the urine or feces.
You can remember this as ADME- Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion.
Okay, now let’s focus on a process called elimination, which is often confused with the process of excretion.
Elimination is the removal of a medication from the body.
Now this can be accomplished through metabolism, where the medication is broken down into inactive metabolites, or through excretion which is when the intact medication is transported out of the body.
This can happen through a number of ways, but the most common route is through urination.
So, the major function of the kidneys is to clear metabolic waste material and foreign substances, like medications, from the body by filtering the blood.
Now, zooming in on a nephron’s tubule, each one is lined by cells that have two surfaces.
One is the apical surface, which faces the tubular lumen, and the other is the basolateral surface, which faces the peritubular capillaries, which run alongside the nephron.
Alright, so first, certain medications in the circulation can be filtered out with the other metabolic wastes when the blood goes through the glomerulus.
Second, as the filtrate makes its way through the proximal convoluted tubule, certain medications from the peritubular capillaries get secreted into the tubular lumen.
For polar, water-soluble medications, this is mainly done actively through active secretion, meaning that it requires specific carrier proteins on the basolateral membrane of the tubular cells, which uses ATP for energy.
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