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Adrenal cortical carcinoma
Primary adrenal insufficiency
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Constitutional growth delay
Growth hormone deficiency
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)
Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (NORD)
Thyroglossal duct cyst
Thyroid eye disease (NORD)
Toxic multinodular goiter
Euthyroid sick syndrome
Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Cushing syndrome and Cushing disease: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Hyperthyroidism: Pathology review
Hypopituitarism: Pathology review
Hypothyroidism: Pathology review
Multiple endocrine neoplasia: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review
Pituitary tumors: Pathology review
Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review
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Pheochromocytoma & Neuroblastoma
pheochromocytoma and p. 343
pheochromocytoma secretion p. 343
pheochromocytoma p. 343
In pheochromocytoma, pheo- means dark, chromo- refers to color, cyto- refers to a cell and -oma means tumor. So a pheochromocytoma is a rare adrenal gland tumor where the cells darken when they form tumors.
Now, there are two adrenal glands, one above each kidney, and each one has an outer layer called the cortex and an inner layer called the medulla.
In the medulla, there are cells called chromaffin cells and their job is to make hormones called catecholamines. The catecholamines include epinephrine and norepinephrine - the fight or flight hormones.
Normally, the chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood when something scary happens - like someone saying BOOM!
The epinephrine and norepinephrine bind to alpha and beta receptors in various tissues throughout our body and cause an increase in cardiac output, increased blood pressure, dilated pupils, increased blood flow to skeletal muscles, and increased blood sugar.
Pheochromocytomas are tumors that form when these chromaffin cells start to divide uncontrollably.
They typically form in one of the adrenal glands, but rarely can be in both and sometimes can even develop in other parts of the body where chromaffin cells are found like the carotid arteries in the neck, the bladder, and the abdominal aorta.
A pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. Pheochromocytomas cause problems by producing too much of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, which then causes sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, resulting in symptoms like high blood pressure, headaches, palpitations, and sweating.
Pheochromocytomas are diagnosed by testing the urine for catecholamines and metanephrine; and imaging studies such as CT or MRI. Treatment involves surgical removal of the tumor, and medications to control blood pressure and heart rate.
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