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Bundle branch block
Pulseless electrical activity
Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)
Premature atrial contraction
Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes
Premature ventricular contraction
Rheumatic heart disease
Atrial septal defect
Coarctation of the aorta
Patent ductus arteriosus
Ventricular septal defect
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Tetralogy of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
Transposition of the great vessels
Pericarditis and pericardial effusion
Aortic valve disease
Mitral valve disease
Pulmonary valve disease
Tricuspid valve disease
Coronary steal syndrome
Polycystic kidney disease
Renal artery stenosis
Peripheral artery disease
Subclavian steal syndrome
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome
Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)
Chronic venous insufficiency
Deep vein thrombosis
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review
Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review
Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Coronary artery disease: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Dyslipidemias: Pathology review
Endocarditis: Pathology review
Heart blocks: Pathology review
Heart failure: Pathology review
Hypertension: Pathology review
Pericardial disease: Pathology review
Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Valvular heart disease: Pathology review
Vasculitis: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
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Pheochromocytoma & Neuroblastoma
pheochromocytoma and p. 343
pheochromocytoma secretion p. 343
pheochromocytoma p. 343
In pheochromocytoma, pheo- means dark, chromo- refers to color, cyto- refers to a cell and -oma means tumor. So a pheochromocytoma is a rare adrenal gland tumor where the cells darken when they form tumors.
Now, there are two adrenal glands, one above each kidney, and each one has an outer layer called the cortex and an inner layer called the medulla.
In the medulla, there are cells called chromaffin cells and their job is to make hormones called catecholamines. The catecholamines include epinephrine and norepinephrine - the fight or flight hormones.
Normally, the chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood when something scary happens - like someone saying BOOM!
The epinephrine and norepinephrine bind to alpha and beta receptors in various tissues throughout our body and cause an increase in cardiac output, increased blood pressure, dilated pupils, increased blood flow to skeletal muscles, and increased blood sugar.
Pheochromocytomas are tumors that form when these chromaffin cells start to divide uncontrollably.
They typically form in one of the adrenal glands, but rarely can be in both and sometimes can even develop in other parts of the body where chromaffin cells are found like the carotid arteries in the neck, the bladder, and the abdominal aorta.
A pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. Pheochromocytomas cause problems by producing too much of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, which then causes sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, resulting in symptoms like high blood pressure, headaches, palpitations, and sweating.
Pheochromocytomas are diagnosed by testing the urine for catecholamines and metanephrine; and imaging studies such as CT or MRI. Treatment involves surgical removal of the tumor, and medications to control blood pressure and heart rate.
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