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Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Adult brain tumors
Pediatric brain tumors
Transient ischemic attack
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Central pontine myelinolysis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Restless legs syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Spinal muscular atrophy
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
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|Fasting glucose||137 mg/dL|
|24-hour urine cortisol*||72 µg/day|
|Serum ACTH**||35 pg/mL|
pituitary adenoma and p. 544
pituitary adenoma p. 544
pituitary adenomas and p. 344, NaN
acromegaly and p. 343
GH and p. 340
goiter and p. 348
hypopituitarism and p. 351
diabetes insipidus p. 344
MEN 1 and p. 358
Normally, the pituitary is a pea-sized gland, hanging by a stalk from the base of the brain.
It sits just behind the eyes near the optic chiasm, which is where the optic nerves cross.
The second largest cell group are the corticotrophs which secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone, or ACTH for short.
A smaller cell group are the lactotrophs which secrete prolactin.
There are also thyrotrophs which are cells that secrete thyroid stimulating hormone, or TSH which goes on to stimulate the thyroid gland.
And finally, there are also gonadotrophs which secrete two gonadotropic hormones - luteinizing hormone, or LH, and follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH, both of which go on to stimulate the ovaries or testes.
In pituitary adenomas, one of these cells mutates and becomes neoplastic, meaning that it starts dividing uncontrollably and over time it forms a tumor.
Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. They vary depending on their size and the type of hormones they produce. Some pituitary adenomas do not produce any hormones and are referred to as non-functioning adenomas, while others produce hormones that can cause a wide range of symptoms.
Common symptoms include headaches, visual disturbances, fatigue, and changes in sexual function or menstrual cycles. The most common types involve lactotrophs that make prolactin, somatotrophs that make growth hormones, and corticotrophs that make ACTH. They are usually diagnosed by checking hormone levels and obtaining an MRI and are treated with medications or surgery.
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