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Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (NORD)
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Cushing syndrome and Cushing disease: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Hyperthyroidism: Pathology review
Hypopituitarism: Pathology review
Hypothyroidism: Pathology review
Multiple endocrine neoplasia: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review
Pituitary tumors: Pathology review
Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review
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pituitary apoplexy p. 351
pituitary apoplexy p. 345
Normally, the pituitary is a pea-sized gland, hanging by a stalk from the base of the brain.
It sits just behind the eyes near the optic chiasm, which is where the optic nerves cross.
The second largest cell group are the corticotrophs which secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone, or ACTH, which stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol, a hormone that controls the stress response, blood pressure, and metabolic regulation.
A smaller cell group are the lactotrophs which secrete prolactin.
There are also thyrotrophs which are cells that secrete thyroid stimulating hormone, or TSH, that stimulate the thyroid gland.
And finally, there are the gonadotrophs which secrete two gonadotropic hormones - luteinizing hormone, or LH, and follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH, both of which go on to stimulate the ovaries or testes.
Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but serious condition that occurs when there is either severe bleeding or loss of blood flow to the pituitary gland, leading to acute dysfunction of the pituitary gland. It is a medical emergency and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.
Symptoms of pituitary apoplexy include sudden onset of severe headache, vision changes, nausea and vomiting, loss of consciousness, and neurological symptoms such as weakness or numbness on one side of the body. Treatment involves medications to control the bleeding or inflammation, and surgery to remove the pituitary tumor, or in some cases, a portion of the skull to relieve pressure.
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