Pituitary tumors: Pathology review


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Pituitary tumors: Pathology review

Disease-specific Pathology

Cardiovascular Disorders


Aortic valve disease

Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review

Atrial septal defect

Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review

Cor pulmonale

Dyslipidemias: Pathology review

Heart failure

Heart failure: Pathology review

Mitral valve disease

Patent ductus arteriosus

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary hypertension

Vasculitis: Pathology review

Ventricular septal defect

Endocrine Disorders

Adrenal masses: Pathology review

Multiple endocrine neoplasia: Pathology review

Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review

Pituitary tumors: Pathology review

Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review

Eye, Ear, Nose, & Throat Disorders

Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review

Eye conditions: Retinal disorders: Pathology review

Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review

Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review

Vertigo: Pathology review

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Diverticulosis and diverticulitis


Esophageal disorders: Pathology review

Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review


Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review

Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review

Genetic Disorders

Angelman syndrome

Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)

Edwards syndrome (Trisomy 18)

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Fragile X syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome


Marfan syndrome

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Osteogenesis imperfecta

Patau syndrome (Trisomy 13)

Prader-Willi syndrome

Sickle cell disease (NORD)

Turner syndrome

Hematological Disorders

Blood transfusion reactions and transplant rejection: Pathology review

Metabolic acidosis

Metabolic alkalosis

Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review

Platelet disorders: Pathology review

Respiratory acidosis

Respiratory alkalosis

Thrombosis syndromes (hypercoagulability): Pathology review

Integumentary Disorders

Pigmentation skin disorders: Pathology review

Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review

Vesiculobullous and desquamating skin disorders: Pathology review

Metabolic Disorders


Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency



Lactose intolerance

Metabolic acidosis

Metabolic alkalosis

Phenylketonuria (NORD)

Tay-Sachs disease (NORD)

Musculoskeletal Disorders

Back pain: Pathology review

Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review

Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Learning disability

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Neurological Disorders

Alzheimer disease

Headaches: Pathology review

Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review

Spina bifida

Nutritional Disorders


Excess Vitamin A

Excess Vitamin D

Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency

Iodine deficiency



Niacin (Vitamin B3) deficiency

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Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

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Psychiatric Disorders


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Respiratory Disorders

Chronic bronchitis

Cor pulmonale



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Respiratory acidosis

Respiratory alkalosis

Sexual & Reproductive Disorders

Amenorrhea: Pathology Review

Benign breast conditions: Pathology review

Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review

Erectile dysfunction

Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Penile conditions: Pathology review

Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review

Uterine disorders: Pathology review

Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review

Sleep Disorders



Narcolepsy (NORD)

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Pituitary tumors: Pathology review

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 7 complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 10-year-old boy is brought to the pediatrician by his parents for worsening headaches that have interfered with his ability to concentrate at school. The patient describes the pain as dull and continuous. The rest of the history is noncontributory. Vitals are within normal limits. Physical examination is unremarkable. Visual testing reveals reduced peripheral vision in both eyes. A head CT is ordered, and the results are as follows:

Image reproduced from Wikimedia Commons

The mass is surgically resected. Subsequent histology reveals calcifications as well as cysts filled with brownish, cholesterol-rich fluid. The mass is most likely a derivative of which of the following structures?  

Memory Anchors and Partner Content


Content Reviewers

Yifan Xiao, MD


Daniel Afloarei, MD

Kaylee Neff

Salma Ladhani, MD

Elizabeth Nixon-Shapiro, MSMI, CMI

While doing your rounds, you see a 6 year-old named Alex who presents with severe headaches and vision impairment which began six months ago. More specifically, he has some difficulty seeing things on the periphery, what he describes as tunnel vision. Examination reveals bitemporal hemianopia and a much taller stature than expected for his age, with disproportionately long arms and legs. Soon after, you see Maria, who says she has been unsuccessfully trying to have a baby for the last two years. She also mentions that she hasn’t had her menstruation in 3 months, but had milky nipple discharge. Hormone serum measurements were performed in both, showing an increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in Alex and an increase in prolactin levels in Maria.

Now, both seem to have a disease affecting the pituitary. But first, a bit of physiology. The pituitary is a small gland situated in a tiny bony space called the sella turcica. It is linked to the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk, and it is divided into the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary. The posterior pituitary is not glandular; thus it doesn’t make its own hormones. Instead, it stores and secretes oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone which are produced in the hypothalamus. By contrast, the anterior pituitary has five types of hormone producing cells. First, lactotrophs secrete prolactin, which stimulates breast milk production and inhibits ovulation and spermatogenesis. Second, somatotrophs secrete growth hormone, or GH. GH acts directly on target tissues to stimulate growth and development. Then, corticotrophs secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone, or ACTH for short. ACTH makes the adrenal glands secrete cortisol. Cortisol is in charge of the stress response and keeping blood pressure and blood sugar in the normal range. Fourth, thyrotrophs secrete thyroid stimulating hormone, or TSH. TSH makes the thyroid gland release thyroid hormones, T3 and T4. Thyroid hormones speed up the basal metabolic rate in all cells, so it keeps cellular processes going at an optimal rate. And finally, gonadotroph cells secrete luteinizing hormone, or LH, and follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH, that stimulate ovarian or testicular production of sex cells and sex hormones.


  1. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  2. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  3. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  4. "Greenspan's Basic and Clinical Endocrinology, Tenth Edition" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2017)
  5. "The prevalence of pituitary adenomas" Cancer (2004)
  6. "Evaluation and Treatment of Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline" The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (2006)
  7. "Nelson's syndrome" European Journal of Endocrinology (2010)

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