Bias in interpreting results of clinical studies
Bias in performing clinical studies
Attributable risk (AR)
DALY and QALY
Incidence and prevalence
Mortality rates and case-fatality
Relative and absolute risk
Positive and negative predictive value
Sensitivity and specificity
Test precision and accuracy
Modes of infectious disease transmission
Vaccination and herd immunity
Cross sectional study
Placebo effect and masking
Randomized control trial
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The placebo effect is a phenomenon in which a patient's symptoms can improve after receiving a treatment that has no active therapeutic effect, such as a sugar pill. This can happen because patients expect the treatment to work and their belief in the treatment can influence their symptoms.
Masking or blinding is a strategy used in research to limit the effects of knowing whether or not a subject is getting therapy. The use of a placebo is one way to mask a subject from knowing whether they are receiving an active treatment or agent or whether they are in the control group. The strategy of double blinding � is to mask observers and data collectors from knowing which group the subjects are in.
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