Platelet disorders: Pathology review


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Platelet disorders: Pathology review



Iron deficiency anemia



Sideroblastic anemia

Anemia of chronic disease

Lead poisoning

Hemolytic disease of the newborn

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

Pyruvate kinase deficiency

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

Sickle cell disease (NORD)

Hereditary spherocytosis

Anemia of chronic disease

Aplastic anemia

Fanconi anemia

Megaloblastic anemia

Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency

Fanconi anemia

Diamond-Blackfan anemia

Heme synthesis disorders

Acute intermittent porphyria

Porphyria cutanea tarda

Lead poisoning

Coagulation disorders


Vitamin K deficiency

Platelet disorders

Bernard-Soulier syndrome

Glanzmann's thrombasthenia

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders

Von Willebrand disease

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

Thrombosis syndromes (hypercoagulability)

Antithrombin III deficiency

Factor V Leiden

Protein C deficiency

Protein S deficiency

Antiphospholipid syndrome


Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma


Chronic leukemia

Acute leukemia

Leukemoid reaction

Leukemoid reaction

Dysplastic and proliferative disorders

Myelodysplastic syndromes

Polycythemia vera (NORD)

Myelofibrosis (NORD)

Essential thrombocythemia (NORD)

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Mastocytosis (NORD)

Plasma cell dyscrasias

Multiple myeloma

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia

Hematological system pathology review

Microcytic anemia: Pathology review

Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review

Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review

Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review

Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review

Heme synthesis disorders: Pathology review

Coagulation disorders: Pathology review

Platelet disorders: Pathology review

Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review

Thrombosis syndromes (hypercoagulability): Pathology review

Lymphomas: Pathology review

Leukemias: Pathology review

Plasma cell disorders: Pathology review

Myeloproliferative disorders: Pathology review


Platelet disorders: Pathology review

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 8 complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 9-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department by his parents due to prolonged bleeding following a tooth extraction earlier in the day. Past medical history is noncontributory. Temperature is 37.5°C (99.5°F), pulse is 88/min, respirations are 14/min, and blood pressure is 112/62 mmHg. Physical exam shows gingival bleeding and petechiae. Laboratory testing is obtained, and the results are shown below.  
Laboratory value  Result
 Hemoglobin  12 g/dL 
 Hematocrit  40% 
 Platelet count  95,000/mm3  
 Leukocyte count  9,000/mm3  
Coagulation studies  
 Prothrombin time (PT)  12 seconds 
 Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)  29 seconds 
 Bleeding time*  15 minutes 
*Reference Range: 2-7 minutes  

Which of the following conditions is the patient at greatest risk of developing?   


Content Reviewers

Yifan Xiao, MD


Robyn Hughes, MScBMC

Maria Emfietzoglou, MD

Alex Aranda

Tanner Marshall, MS

At the family medicine center, a mother came in with her 5 year old child, Alana.

Several days ago, Alana developed bloody diarrhea after eating undercooked ground beef and her mother noticed her face was pale and she only urinated once in the past 12 hours.

Next to her, there’s a 30 year old person named Danika, who came in complaining of increased bruising for the past several months.

She has no other symptoms and physical examination shows multiple ecchymoses on the extremities.

Both Alana and Danika are suffering from a hemostasis disorder.

Hemostasis disorders, also known as bleeding disorders, can be broadly divided into three groups.

The first includes problems with primary hemostasis, which is when there’s a problem forming the initial platelet plug, and so, they’re referred to as platelet disorders.

Now, the second group includes problems with secondary hemostasis, which is making a strong fibrin clot through activation of the intrinsic, extrinsic and common coagulation pathways, and are also known as coagulation disorders.

And the last group includes disorders that affect both primary and secondary hemostasis and are known as mixed platelet and coagulation disorders.

For this video, let’s focus on the platelet disorders.

These can be further subdivided into two categories. In the first category, there’s thrombocytopenia, which is defined as a platelet count below 150,000 per microliter, with the normal range being between 150,000 and 450,000.

Thrombocytopenia can be caused by increased platelet destruction, which can be immune-mediated, like in heparin induced thrombocytopenia, or HIT, and immune thrombocytopenic purpura, or ITP.

Other cases can be non-immune mediated, like thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, or TTP, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, or HUS.


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