Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)


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Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)

Medical and surgical emergencies

Cardiology, cardiac surgery and vascular surgery

Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS): Clinical (To be retired)

Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Heart blocks: Pathology review

Coronary artery disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Heart failure: Clinical (To be retired)

Syncope: Clinical (To be retired)

Pericardial disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Valvular heart disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Chest trauma: Clinical (To be retired)

Shock: Clinical (To be retired)

Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Leg ulcers: Clinical (To be retired)

Aortic aneurysms and dissections: Clinical (To be retired)

Cholinomimetics: Direct agonists

Cholinomimetics: Indirect agonists (anticholinesterases)

Muscarinic antagonists

Sympathomimetics: Direct agonists

Sympatholytics: Alpha-2 agonists

Adrenergic antagonists: Presynaptic

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Adrenergic antagonists: Beta blockers

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

Loop diuretics

Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

Calcium channel blockers

cGMP mediated smooth muscle vasodilators

Class I antiarrhythmics: Sodium channel blockers

Class II antiarrhythmics: Beta blockers

Class III antiarrhythmics: Potassium channel blockers

Class IV antiarrhythmics: Calcium channel blockers and others

Positive inotropic medications

Antiplatelet medications

Dermatology and plastic surgery

Blistering skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Bites and stings: Clinical (To be retired)

Burns: Clinical (To be retired)

Endocrinology and ENT (Otolaryngology)

Diabetes mellitus: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypothyroidism and thyroiditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Parathyroid conditions and calcium imbalance: Clinical (To be retired)

Adrenal insufficiency: Clinical (To be retired)

Neck trauma: Clinical (To be retired)


Mineralocorticoids and mineralocorticoid antagonists


Gastroenterology and general surgery

Abdominal pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Appendicitis: Clinical (To be retired)

Gastrointestinal bleeding: Clinical (To be retired)

Peptic ulcers and stomach cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Inflammatory bowel disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Diverticular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Gallbladder disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Pancreatitis: Clinical (To be retired)

Cirrhosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Hernias: Clinical (To be retired)

Bowel obstruction: Clinical (To be retired)

Abdominal trauma: Clinical (To be retired)

Laxatives and cathartics


Acid reducing medications

Hematology and oncology

Blood products and transfusion: Clinical (To be retired)

Venous thromboembolism: Clinical (To be retired)

Anticoagulants: Heparin

Anticoagulants: Warfarin

Anticoagulants: Direct factor inhibitors

Antiplatelet medications


Infectious diseases

Fever of unknown origin: Clinical (To be retired)

Infective endocarditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)

Tuberculosis: Pathology review

Diarrhea: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary tract infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Meningitis, encephalitis and brain abscesses: Clinical (To be retired)

Bites and stings: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin and soft tissue infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides

Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim

Antituberculosis medications

Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins

Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones

Herpesvirus medications



Miscellaneous antifungal medications

Anthelmintic medications


Anti-mite and louse medications

Nephrology and urology

Hypernatremia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyponatremia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperkalemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypokalemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Metabolic and respiratory acidosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Metabolic and respiratory alkalosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Toxidromes: Clinical (To be retired)

Medication overdoses and toxicities: Pathology review

Environmental and chemical toxicities: Pathology review

Acute kidney injury: Clinical (To be retired)

Kidney stones: Clinical (To be retired)

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Neurology and neurosurgery

Stroke: Clinical (To be retired)

Seizures: Clinical (To be retired)

Headaches: Clinical (To be retired)

Traumatic brain injury: Clinical (To be retired)

Neck trauma: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review

Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Barbiturates

Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines

Nonbenzodiazepine anticonvulsants

Migraine medications

Osmotic diuretics

Antiplatelet medications


Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Opioid antagonists

Pulmonology and thoracic surgery

Asthma: Clinical (To be retired)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Clinical (To be retired)

Venous thromboembolism: Clinical (To be retired)

Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Clinical (To be retired)

Pleural effusion: Clinical (To be retired)

Pneumothorax: Clinical (To be retired)

Chest trauma: Clinical (To be retired)

Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists

Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors

Rheumatology and orthopedic surgery

Joint pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder

Anatomy clinical correlates: Axilla

Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand

Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back

Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh

Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle

Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Antigout medications


Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)

USMLE® Step 2 questions

0 / 22 complete


USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 44-year-old man comes to his physician for evaluation of a nonproductive cough, headaches, and myalgias for the past three weeks. He also reports chest pain that is aggravated by deep inspiration. The patient works in construction and is regularly involved in excavating caves. He recently traveled to Ohio for work one month ago. Past medical history is noncontributory. Temperature is 37.8°C (100.1°F), pulse is 96/min, respirations are 16/min, and blood pressure is 125/85 mmHg. Lung auscultation reveals diffuse rales. Chest radiograph demonstrates bilateral diffuse reticular opacities, as well as mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. The patient is started on empiric amoxicillin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. However, he returns after one week of treatment due to persistent symptoms. Urinary antigen testing is performed and subsequently confirms the diagnosis. Which of the following therapies is most appropriate to treat this patient’s condition?  


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Jake Ryan

Tanner Marshall, MS

Justin Ling, MD, MS

Pneumonia is due to inflammation of the lung alveoli from an infection. Typically, fluid that’s filled with white blood cells starts to fill up the alveoli, and that inflammatory fluid essentially replaces the air that’s normally in the alveoli, and that fluid interferes with gas exchange

Pneumonia typically causes a fever, cough, and shortness of breath, along with tachypnea and tachycardia, and occasionally hypoxemia. If the infection is near the pleural surface, it can cause pleuritic chest pain, which is pain that worsens with inspiration. On chest exam, there’s dullness on percussion; increased tactile fremitus, which is an increased sensation of vibration when palpating over the affected area and asking the individual to speak; and egophony, which is increased resonance of transmitted sounds and makes the letter “E” sound like the letter “A”. On auscultation, bronchial breath sounds or inspiratory crackles may be heard. 

The diagnosis of pneumonia is based on having clinical signs and symptoms along with abnormal chest imaging, most commonly a chest x-ray. In pneumonia, a chest x-ray typically shows either a lobar consolidation or a diffuse, interstitial infiltrate. Pneumonia has to be distinguished from atelectasis which is when there’s collapse of a region of the lung, a complication that often occurs in individuals after surgery. On a chest x-ray, atelectasis shows up as a wedge-shaped region with it’s apex at the hilum with an ipsilateral shift of structures due to volume loss. In contrast, in a pneumonia there’s usually normal or increased volume with a consolidation that doesn’t have an apex at the hilum and no shift in structures. Now, in addition to imaging, some lab tests suggestive of pneumonia include an elevated white blood cell count, and elevated markers of inflammation like procalcitonin and C-reactive protein. It’s thought that these generally increase much more in bacterial pneumonia versus viral pneumonia.  


Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that results in air sacs being filled with fluid. It may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungal infections. Pneumonia is a serious condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. It is diagnosed based on symptoms like cough and fever and an abnormal chest x-ray which might show a lobar consolidation or an interstitial infiltrate, and in some cases, there may be cavitation or pleural effusion.

Pneumonia is classified into community-acquired pneumonia, or CAP, and hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated pneumonia, or HAP and VAP. CAP is pneumonia in which the organism was acquired anywhere in the community outside the hospital. HAP and VAP are defined as pneumonia starting more than 48 hours after admission to a hospital or endotracheal intubation, respectively.

Decision-making tools like the CURB-65 are essential to determine whether a CAP patient should be treated outpatient, inpatient, or in the intensive care unit, and the antibiotic choice depends on the setting. Sputum samples for gram stain and culture as well as blood cultures should be obtained for individuals with CAP in the intensive care unit, as well as those with HAP or VAP. Complications of pneumonia include parapneumonic effusion, empyema, and lung abscess. Preventative measures to decrease the risk of acquiring pneumonia include providing pneumococcal and influenza vaccines.


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