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Apnea of prematurity
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Pulmonary changes at high altitude and altitude sickness
Congenital pulmonary airway malformation
Superior vena cava syndrome
Meconium aspiration syndrome
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Sudden infant death syndrome
Transient tachypnea of the newborn
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Restrictive lung diseases
Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses
Upper respiratory tract infection
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Restrictive lung diseases: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
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Mark's Pneumonia Story
Common Causes of Pneumonia: Adults (18 - 40 Years Old)
Common Causes of Pneumonia: Children (4 Weeks - 18 Years)
Common Causes of Pneumonia: Elderly (65+ Years Old)
Common Causes of Pneumonia: Middle-Aged Adults (40 - 65 Years Old)
Common Causes of Pneumonia: Neonates (< 4 Weeks Old)
pneumonia p. 645
pneumonia caused by p. 175
pneumonia p. 175
Klebsiella pneumonia p. 655
pneumonia in p. 146
pneumonia prophylaxis p. 165
acute respiratory distress syndrome p. 642
adenoviridae p. 160
chlamydiae p. 146
coccidioidomycosis p. 147
common causes p. 175
compliance in p. 631
Haemophilus influenzae p. 138
inhalational injury p. 640
Klebsiella pneumoniae p. 655
Mycoplasma pneumoniae p. 146
Pneumocystis jirovecii p. 150
proton pump inhibitors and p. 381
Pseudomonas aeruginosa p. 139
Q fever p. 145
readmissions with p. 261
Staphylococcus aureus p. 131
Streptococcus pneumoniae p. 132
Streptococcus agalactiae p. 133
VZV p. 160
pneumonia p. 175, 645
Pneumonia is an infection in the lung tissue caused by microbes, and the result is inflammation.
The inflammation brings water into the lung tissue, and that extra water can make it harder to breathe.
During inhalation, air reaches your lungs by traveling down your trachea, then it continues through the bronchi and the bronchioles and ends up in the alveoli.
The alveoli are tiny air sacs that look like tiny clumps of grapes, that are wrapped up in a net of capillaries. This is where the majority of gas exchange happens in the lungs.
Oxygen leaves the air in the alveoli and crosses into the bloodstream while carbon dioxide leaves the bloodstream and is then exhaled out of the body.
Now, now in addition to air, you’re constantly breathing in other stuff, like microbes. But we’re usually good at protecting ourselves.
For example, we have mechanical techniques like coughing, a mucociliary escalator that lines the entire airway and moves out larger bacteria, and macrophages that are nestled deep inside the alveoli and ready to destroy anything that lands there.
But sometimes, a particularly nasty microbe might succeed in colonizing the bronchioles or alveoli, and when that happens - Congratulations! You’ve got pneumonia.
Those microbes typically multiply and cross over from the airways into the lung tissue, creating an inflammatory response.
The tissue quickly fills with white blood cells as well as proteins, fluid, and even red blood cells if a nearby capillary gets damaged in the process.
Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that results in air sacs being filled with fluid. It may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungal infections. Pneumonia is either community-acquired, meaning a person got sick outside of a hospital or healthcare setting; or hospital-acquired, which is when a person gets it when they are already hospitalized for something else. Common symptoms of pneumonia can include fever, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can range from mild to severe. Treatment for pneumonia typically involves drugs to kill the invading pathogen and supportive care such as oxygen therapy.
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