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Most commonly, an individual at risk of primary spontaneous pneumothorax is a tall, thin, young male presenting with symptoms that started at rest.
This is because there are more mechanical shear forces at the apex of the lung, that can make the pleura rupture, especially after for some reason holding their breath like diving or inhaling and holding a recreational drug or medication in their lungs.
Then there’s a secondary pneumothorax; that is a spontaneous pneumothorax that occurs in a lung with pre-existing lung disease, like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, asthma, interstitial lung disease, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, or lung cancer.
Traumatic pneumothorax occurs secondary to injury of the pleura after blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest like a stab wound, or as a complication of a procedure, such as a lung biopsy, thoracentesis, central line insertion, or mechanical ventilation.
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