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Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Intrauterine growth restriction
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Congenital rubella syndrome
Neonatal herpes simplex
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Amenorrhea: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
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PCOS | I Have a Beard!
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Mechanism
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Symptoms and Diagnosis
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Treatment
Reproductive Hormones Overview & Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
anovulation p. 665
antiandrogens p. 677
clomiphene p. 676
endometrial hyperplasia p. 660
ovarian neoplasm risk p. 666
In polycystic ovary syndrome, “poly” means many, and “cystic” refers to cysts.
So you might think that having many ovarian cysts is a crucial part of polycystic ovary syndrome.
But while some people with polycystic ovarian syndrome do have ovarian cysts, ovarian cysts are no longer a necessary characteristic of the condition.
Instead, polycystic ovary syndrome is a dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, which are the hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle.
A normal menstrual cycle can be divided into two phases: the follicular phase, which takes place before ovulation, and the luteal phase, which takes place after ovulation.
During the follicular phase, the hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone, or GnRH.
GnRH makes the anterior pituitary gland secrete two other hormones, called gonadotropins, in roughly equal amounts, which it releases in pulses.
One of these gonadotropins is the luteinizing hormone, or LH.
The other is the follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH.
LH and FSH travel to the follicles in the ovaries.
The follicles are small clusters of theca and granulosa cells that protect the developing oocyte, or egg.
The theca cells develop LH receptors which allow them to bind LH, and in response they secrete a hormone called androstenedione.
Granulosa cells develop FSH receptors, which allow them to bind to FSH and produce an enzyme called aromatase, which converts the androstenedione into 17β-estradiol - a member of the estrogen family.
Polycystic ovary syndrome or just PCOS, refers to a set of symptoms due to excessive androgen production in women. Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, trouble getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin. Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer. Management for PCOS may involve lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise, hormone therapy, and medications.
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