00:00 / 00:00
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Premature ovarian failure
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Intrauterine growth restriction
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Neonatal herpes simplex
Congenital rubella syndrome
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
Amenorrhea: Pathology Review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Polycystic ovary syndrome
0 / 13 complete
0 / 2 complete
anovulation p. 669
antiandrogens p. 681
clomiphene p. 680
endometrial hyperplasia p. 665
ovarian neoplasm risk p. 670
Sam Gillespie, BSc
In polycystic ovary syndrome, “poly” means many, and “cystic” refers to cysts.
So you might think that having many ovarian cysts is a crucial part of polycystic ovary syndrome.
But while some people with polycystic ovarian syndrome do have ovarian cysts, ovarian cysts are no longer a necessary characteristic of the condition.
Instead, polycystic ovary syndrome is a dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, which are the hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle.
A normal menstrual cycle can be divided into two phases: the follicular phase, which takes place before ovulation, and the luteal phase, which takes place after ovulation.
During the follicular phase, the hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone, or GnRH.
GnRH makes the anterior pituitary gland secrete two other hormones, called gonadotropins, in roughly equal amounts, which it releases in pulses.
One of these gonadotropins is the luteinizing hormone, or LH.
The other is the follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH.
LH and FSH travel to the follicles in the ovaries.
The follicles are small clusters of theca and granulosa cells that protect the developing oocyte, or egg.
The theca cells develop LH receptors which allow them to bind LH, and in response they secrete a hormone called androstenedione.
Granulosa cells develop FSH receptors, which allow them to bind to FSH and produce an enzyme called aromatase, which converts the androstenedione into 17β-estradiol - a member of the estrogen family.
Polycystic ovary syndrome or just PCOS, refers to a set of symptoms due to excessive androgen production in women. Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, trouble getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin. Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer. Management for PCOS may involve lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise, hormone therapy, and medications.
Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties
Cookies are used by this site.
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.