is a complication of portal hypertension as blood backs up from the liver into the spleen.
USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE
A 50-year-old woman comes to the emergency department because of hematemesis. After waking up this morning, she vomited blood several times. The bleeding has since resolved, but she feels nauseous and dizzy. She denies any pain. She has a history of osteoarthritis, gastroesophageal reflux, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. She has not received medical care and has not been taking any prescription medications for several years. The patient denies any tobacco or alcohol use. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) reveals oozing esophageal and gastric varices. Later, a liver biopsy shows normal liver histology. Which of the following is the most likely pathophysiology underlying her bleeding varices?