USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE
USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE
A 6-year-old girl comes to the office for a routine examination. She was born at 37 weeks' gestation by vaginal delivery without complication. Her temperature is 37°C (98.6°F), pulse is 70/min, respirations are 13/min, and her blood pressure is 97/58 mm Hg. Physical examination shows Tanner stage 3 breast development. A radiograph of the wrist is obtained and shows a bone age of 10 years. A leuprolide stimulation test shows no luteinizing hormone response. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in the diagnosis of this patient?
Puberty is the time in an individual’s life when they physically become sexually mature and able to have children.
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is a system of hormone signaling between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads, either the testes or ovaries, to control sexual development and reproduction.
When gonadotropin-releasing hormone reach the pituitary gland, it stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary, called gonadotrophs, to release gonadotropin hormones: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone into the blood.
These gonadotropin hormones then stimulate the gonads to produce specific steroids, sex hormones.
Each ovarian follicle is made up of a ring of granulosa and theca cells surrounding a primary oocyte at its core.
Then, the granulosa cells respond to follicle stimulating hormone by converting the androstenedione into estrogen and progesterone.
Primary sex characteristics refers to the genitals, organs directly involved in sexual reproduction.
Secondary sex characteristics refers to any sex-specific physical characteristic that is not directly involved or necessary in sexual reproduction, like pubic hair and breasts, in females.
The Tanner scale centers on two, independent criteria: the appearance of pubic hair in both sexes; and the increase in testicular volume and penile size and length in males, and breast development in females.
In stage 2, pubic hair appears; there is a measurable enlargement of the testes; and breast buds appear.
In stage 3, pubic hair becomes coarser; the penis begins to enlarge in both size and length; and breast mounds form.