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Fibrocystic breast changes
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Intrauterine growth restriction
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Congenital rubella syndrome
Neonatal herpes simplex
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Amenorrhea: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
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Preeclampsia and HELLP Syndrome
preeclampsia p. 662
preeclampsia and p. 662
preeclampsia/eclampsia p. 662
hydatidiform moles p. 658
placental abruption p. 659
Preeclampsia is a disorder that only happens in pregnant women, and it happens after 20 weeks’ gestation, and in some cases develops up to 6 weeks after delivery.
Preeclampsia causes new-onset hypertension and proteinuria, which is a marker of kidney damage, and can also cause damage to other organs like the brain and liver.
There can be a wide range of symptoms. For some women there may be no symptoms or only mild ones, whereas for others, it can turn into a life-threatening illness.
If a woman with preeclampsia develops seizures, she is then said to have eclampsia.
Preeclampsia tends to occur more often during a first pregnancy, in pregnancies with multiple gestations, or in mothers 35 years or older.
Other risk factors include having hypertension, diabetes, obesity, or a family history of preeclampsia.
Alright, but why do these changes happen in preeclampsia and eclampsia?
Well, the exact cause is unclear, but a key pathophysiologic feature though is the development of an abnormal placenta.
Normally, during pregnancy, the spiral arteries dilate to 5-10 times their normal size and develop into large uteroplacental arteries that can deliver large quantities of blood to the developing fetus.
In preeclampsia, these uteroplacental arteries become fibrous causing them to narrow, which means less blood gets to the placenta.
A poorly perfused placenta can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and even fetal death in severe cases.
This hypoperfused placenta starts releasing pro-inflammatory proteins.
These then get into the mother’s circulation and cause the endothelial cells that line her blood vessels to become dysfunctional.
Endothelial cell dysfunction causes vasoconstriction—narrowing of the blood vessels—and also affects the kidneys in a way that makes them retain more salt, both of which result in hypertension.
Preeclampsia and eclampsia are two separate, but related, conditions that occur during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria presenting after 20 weeks of gestation and can worsen over time. In severe disease, there may be hemolysis, a low blood platelet count, impaired liver function, kidney dysfunction, shortness of breath due to fluid in the lungs, and visual disturbances.
If left untreated, preeclampsia can lead to eclampsia, a more serious condition in which the woman experiences convulsions or seizures. Treatment for preeclampsia and eclampsia typically involves a combination of bed rest and medications such as antihypertensives and magnesium sulfate, which helps to prevent seizures. In some cases, the delivery of the baby may be required.
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