Prostate cancer

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Prostate cancer

Reproductive system


Prostate cancer


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USMLE® Step 1 questions

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High Yield Notes

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Prostate cancer

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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

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A 63-year-old man comes to the office because of nocturnal back pain that is not relieved by rest or change in position. He was diagnosed with localized prostate cancer 6 months ago and was started on long-acting gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist after refusal of surgical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. Further evaluation confirms the diagnosis of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. A decision to start flutamide is made to help relieve pain and decrease the size of the tumor. Which of the following best describes the mechanism of action of this agent?  

External References

First Aid








Prostate cancer

adenocarcinomas p. 678

estrogens for p. 680

incidence/mortality of p. 202

leuprolide for p. 680

metastases of p. 224

tumor suppressor genes and p. 222


Prostate cancer, usually refers to prostate adenocarcinoma, where adeno- means gland and carcinoma refers to uncontrolled growth of cells - so prostate cancer is a tumor or growth that originates in the prostate gland.

Only males are born with a prostate, so this condition only affects males and not females.

Typically, when there’s a prostate cancer it’s considered malignant, meaning that the tumor cells can metastasize, or invade and destroy surrounding tissues as well as tissues throughout the body.

The prostate is a small gland, about the size and shape of a walnut, that sits under the bladder and in front of the rectum.

The urethra which is the tube through which urine leaves the bladder, goes through the prostate before reaching the penis.

And that part of the urethra is called the prostatic urethra.

The prostate is covered by a capsule of tough connective tissue and smooth muscle.

Beneath this layer, the prostate can be divided into a few zones.

The peripheral zone, which is the outermost posterior section, is the largest of the zone and contain about 70% of the prostate’s glandular tissue.

Moving inward, the next section is the central zone which contains about 25% of the glandular tissue as well as the ejaculatory ducts that join with the prostatic urethra.

Last, is the transitional zone, which contains around 5% of the glandular tissue as well as a portion of the prostatic urethra.


Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. It usually arises in the posterior lobe of the prostate and can spread to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. Symptoms include difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, weight loss, and pain in the pelvis during urination. Treatment may involve a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, and surgery.


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